Die DOC-Files



Copyright © 1997
TINA
and
Copyright © 1997
Antares Real-Estate


14.11.97

Diese Files sind dem WWW entnommen. Ich füge sie hier ein, weil nach meinen bisherigen Erfahrungen Texte sehr schnell ins Nimmerwiedersehen verschwinden. So sind mehrere, vermutlich wichtige Quellen nicht mehr auffindbar, obwohl sie laut Altavista vorhanden sein müßten.

Mehre Personen haben sich intensiv mit der Analyse des Beale-Rätsels beschäftigt.


THE BEALE CIPHERS


by E.E.REMINGTON

THE BEALE CIPHERS, by E.E.REMINGTON
 
Jeffrey A. Hill 
1661 W. Republic #20
Salina, Kansas 67401 
May 29, 1989 
 
The Beale Papers 
 
     In the Spring of 1885, James B. Ward [7], acting as the agent for an
anonymous author, began selling copies of a pamphlet entitled, THE BEALE
PAPERS, which purported to tell the true story of a fortune in gold,
silver, and jewels buried in the Virginia hills.  The only clues as to the
location of that treasure were three letters from a Mr. Thomas J. Beale to
a Mr. Robert Morriss, together with three messages in cipher that were
reprinted in the pamphlet.  The letters from Beale tell the story of a
party of thirty men who went West on a hunting trip in 1817.  As luck
would have it, while tracking a herd of buffalo in northern New Mexico,
they discovered a rich vein of gold. Abandoning the buffalo hunt for a
more lucrative occupation, they began to accumulate a sizable hoard of
gold and silver.  In 1819, the accumulated store of treasure was
transported to Virginia, where it was buried for safe keeping about four
miles from Buford's Tavern (modern day Montvale). A second shipment
followed in 1821. According to the Ward pamphlet, the entire party of
thiry men disappeared without a trace before a third shipment could be
made.

    That would have been the end of the story except that before
returning to New Mexico in 1822, Beale had decided to entrust Robert
Morriss, a Lynchburg innkeeper of high moral repute, with a strongbox
containing two letters and three ciphers.  A third letter was mailed to
Morriss from St. Louis, instructing him to wait ten years before opening
the box and then, if Beale had not returned before then to claim it, to
read the papers inside.  At that time (in 1832), a fourth letter was
supposed to reach Morriss from someone in St. Louis who had been entrusted
with the key to the ciphers. Morriss would then have been able to decipher
the messages and learn the location of the treasure vault, its contents,
and the names of the Beale party's next of kin to whom he was to deliver
the treasure (after deducting an amount specified by Beale as a fee for
these services).  Unfortunately, the letter bearing the key never arrived
and Morriss was unable to comply with Beale's final request.

    In 1862, one year before his death, Morriss passed the contents of the
strongbox to the unknown person who was later to become the author of the
Beale pamphlet.  This person made the discovery that the Declaration of
Independence is the key to Cipher #2, which describes the contents of the
treasure vault.  But after twenty years of effort, Cipher #1, which gives
the location of the treasure, and Cipher #3, which names the Beale Party's
next of kin, remained unbroken. The author explains that he has been forced
to abandon his own attempt to break the ciphers, and is offering the
pamphlet to the public for a small fee, in order to recover some of the
personal wealth that he has lost by devoting twenty years of his life to
the Beale mystery.

The Beale Cipher Table

    As the Beale Papers author explains, Cipher #2 is a "book" cipher for
which the Declaration of Independence is the key document. Beale, whoever
he was, numbered the words of the DOI and used these numbers as his cipher
elements.  Whenever he needed an "A", for example, he found a word in the
DOI beginning with "A" and used the corresponding word number as a
substitute for the letter.

    However, if the words of the standard version of the Declaration of
Independence are numbered and the first letters of these words are
substituted for the corresponding numbers in Cipher #2 one quickly
discovers that Beale did not use the standard version of the DOI as his
cipher key.  The Beale version appears to have been a DOI that had been
shortened to conform to some unknown editor's available space.  Thus there
are gaps of 10 or 11, and even 68, words where Beale's numbering fails to
conform to the numbering of the standard DOI.

    It is a fairly simple matter to locate all the elements of
Cipher #2 in the DOI and then to make educated guesses as to how Beale's
version of the DOI differed from the standard version.  In doing so, one
should be alert for typographical errors in the cipher itself.  The four
procedures which follow summarize the generally agreed upon adjustments
needed to get error-free clear text for Cipher #2:

Step One:  Replace comma missing between elements [10] and [8].

    Position 571, [108] --->     Position 571, [10]
                             and Position 572,  [8]

Step Two:  Correct seven other typographical errors in Cipher #2.
    (Position Numbers reflect renumbering after comma is inserted in
     Step One).

        Position     Ward    New   Adjustment
        --------     ----    ---   ----------
  1        223         84     85   +1
  2        500        117    116   -1
  3        531         53     54   +1
  4        591        188    138   correct 3 mistaken for 8
  5        667        440     40   eliminate duplicate 4
  6        702         84     85   +1
  7        723         96     95   -1

Step Three: Create Beale Cipher Table (BCT) to correct counting errors
            made by Beale or to adjust for differences between Beale's
            version of the DOI and the Standard DOI.

                     Corresponding  Conversion Rule
Group  BCT Elements  DOI Elements   (N = Position Number)
-----  ------------  -------------  ---------------------
  1       1 -  154      1 -  154    BCT[N] = DOI[N]
  2     155 -  157                  Indeterminate
  3     158 -  241    157 -  240    BCT[N] = DOI[N - 1]
  4     242 -  245                  Indeterminate
  5     246 -  466    246 -  466    BCT[N] = DOI[N]
  6     467 -  484                  Indeterminate
  7     485 -  505    495 -  515    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 10]
  8     506 -  510                  Indeterminate
  9     511 -  620    520 -  629    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 9]
 10     621 -  642                  Indeterminate
 11     643 -  666    653 -  676    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 10]
 12     667 -  806                  Indeterminate
 13     807 -  811    818 -  822    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 11]
 14     812 - 1004                  Indeterminate
 15    1005           1073          BCT[N] = DOI[N + 68]
 16    1006 - 1322                  Indeterminate

Step Four:  Use the elements of BCT to decipher Beale Cipher #2.

     There are no words that begin with "x" or "y" in the DOI, so
Beale found it necessary to substitute DOI[822], "fundamentally", for "y"
and either DOI[994], "sexes",  or DOI[1073], "extend", for "x".  DOI[994]
has long been the preferred choice of Beale analysts, but this involves an
adjustment of minus 11 which means either that Beale miscounted by 11 words
or someone inserted 11 extra words into the DOI.  DOI[1073], however,
involves an adjustment of plus 68, which is consistent with our theory that
Beale's version of the DOI had several passages deleted from it so that it
would fit into a space too small for the standard DOI.  In other words,
somewhere between DOI[823] and DOI[1073] there were 57 words deleted giving
a cumulative total of 68 and placing DOI[1073] at position 1005 in the
edited document.

History of the Beale Ciphers

     The most complete account of the Beale Ciphers which has yet appeared
is THE BEALE TREASURE: A HISTORY OF A MYSTERY, by Peter Viemeister [6].
Viemeister reports that there was indeed a Thomas Beale living near
Buford's Tavern between 1800 and 1820. In fact, there were two Thomas
Beales, a father and an illegitimate son. The father appears to have
fought a duel with a certain James B. Risque in 1806 or 1807 and, having
wounded Risque, been forced to depart hastily for New Orleans, where he
died in 1820. His son followed him to New Orleans in 1818 and later died
there in 1823.


     As Viemeister points out, the name Beale was fairly common so it is
perhaps not very surprising that two Thomas Beales should be found living
within twenty miles of the alleged treasure site in the early 1800's.  The
dates 1819 to 1822 given in the Beale pamphlet agree closely enough with
the dates 1818 to 1823 associated with the younger Beale, so that one
possibility is that the Beale described in the pamphlet was actually the
younger Beale masquerading as a western adventurer on trips between New
Orleans and Lynchburg from 1818 until his death in 1823.  This is merely
speculation, however.  What makes these Beales especially interesting is
the fact that the James B. Risque wounded in the duel was the grandfather
of James B. Ward in whose name the Beale pamphlet is copyrighted.
Furthermore, Ward himself was known to have operated a sawmill on Goose
Creek near Buford's Tavern in the same general area where the treasure is
said to be buried. St. Louis, which figures in the Beale story as the
jumping off point for the Beale expedition and as the location where the
cipher key was left in the possession of one of Beale's friends, is also
linked to Ward because he worked there as an army paymaster in the early
1840's.  Thus Ward himself had personal knowledge of the persons and places
named in the pamphlet and might have based the entire story on fragments of
his own personal and family history. Viemeister names several individuals
with whom Ward could have collaborated in producing the pamphlet, thus
making it technically true that Ward was acting as agent for the person who
actually wrote the story.  The interested reader is referred to
Viemeister's book where he will find these facts and theories discussed in
greater detail.  The book also contains a good, clear reprint of the Beale
pamphlet, which alone is worth the price of the book.

The Hart Brothers

    George and Clayton Hart are the first persons known to have actively
searched for the treasure. Between 1897 and 1912 they spend most of their
spare time either looking for the documents which served as the keys for
the ciphers or digging holes in the ground at promising treasure sites.
They are primarily important for the written account of their search which
George Hart [3] prepared for the Roanoke Public Library in 1952. For many
years this manuscript provided treasure hunters with the only known copy
of the Beale Pamphlet which was available to the public. In 1979, when a
copy of the pamphlet was finally located among the personal papers of
William F. Friedman, it was discovered that Hart's version of the ciphers
was not identical to the pamphlet version. As pointed out earlier, one
must reconstruct Beale's cipher table by locating the elements of Cipher
#2 in the standard version of the Declaration of Independence. In doing
this, it seems natural to create the adjusted version of the DOI which has
been referred to above as the Beale Cipher Table. However, the Hart
brothers preferred to adjust the actual cipher elements so that the
standard DOI could be used as the cipher table. This caused several
problems. For one thing, treasure hunters who owned copies of the actual
pamphlet, and thus knew that the Hart version differed from the Ward
version, were encouraged to withhold the pamphlet from public scrutiny
because it might contain valuable information which could not be found in
the Hart version, thus giving them an edge in the search for the treasure.
Also, since the Harts were primarily just interested in getting the clear
text of Cipher #2, they often adjusted "enciphering errors" with the first
convenient substitute that occurred to them rather than give serious
thought as to how these "errors" came about. Unfortunately, this
preference for adjusting the cipher elements themselves rather than
reconstructing Beale's version of the DOI had serious consequences for
later researchers who had only the Hart version of the ciphers to work
with. Conclusions were reached based on the Hart versions that could not
be supported by a study of the Ward versions. Even today, when reprints
of the Ward pamphlet are readily available, researchers who have not made
a thorough study of the Beale Ciphers continue to reach faulty conclusions
based on a study of the Hart versions.

The Gillogly Strings

    James J.Gillogly [1], curious as to what would happen if the DOI was used
as the key text for Cipher #1, discovered several strings having a distinct
alphabetical sequence.  The most important of these are listed in Figure 1.

    Since the string beginning at position 188, in particular, could hardly
have occurred by chance, Gillogly concluded that the DOI is in fact the
"key" for Cipher #1 and that the alphabetical strings are the only
"message" that it contains.  If this is true, then the entire treasure
story is indeed a hoax. Others, however, have speculated that the Gillogy
Strings are themselves keys of some kind to be used in deciphering what
remains of Cipher #1.

      CIPHER #1
      STARTING 
      POSITION   ALPHABETICAL STRING (as Deciphered using BCT) 
      ---------  ---------------------------------------------
          39     A A B A D A A A B B C D E F F I F           
          84     A B B B C C C C D D E 
         111     A C B C D D E        
         188     A B C D E F G H I I J K L M M N O H P P   
 
     FIGURE 1.  THE GILLOGLY STRINGS.

Are the Beale Ciphers a Hoax?

     A few years before Gillogly's article appeared, Dr. Carl
Hammer [2], in one of the first computer studies that focused on the Beale
Ciphers, had  concluded that the ciphers themselves did not appear to be
merely collections  of random numbers.  In other words, there were cyclic
patterns in Ciphers #1  and #3 which suggested that they had been
enciphered in more or less the same  way as Cipher #2 and other ciphers
used for comparison, which were known to contain messages.  If the two
ciphers in question had simply been thrown together by picking numbers at
random, there would have been no cyclic component in the "runs" of
elements.  However, the evidence that these ciphers contain messages is by
no means conclusive.

     Supporting the hoax theory is Louis Kruh [4], [5] who cites the results
of statistical comparison with the other sections of the Ward pamphlet to
suggest rather strongly that the entire pamphlet was written by the same
person, presumably James B. Ward.

     The weight of the evidence has, therefore, shifted in favor of the hoax
theory in recent years.  There is no guarantee that Ciphers #1 and #3
actually contain messages, or that any messages they might contain would
reveal the location of a treasure.

The Beale Cypher Association

     The Beale Cypher Association was formed by a small group of treasure
hunters in 1968.   It was their hope that, by combining talents and sharing
information, the ciphers, which had resisted individual efforts to solve
them for at least eighty years, would yield at last to a group effort.
Twenty years later, this hope remains unfulfilled.  Although the BCA has
grown from the original eleven members to about one hundred members, the
nature of the quest has an inhibiting effect on mutual cooperation.  If
there really is a Beale treasure vault, then revealing too much of what one
knows about the ciphers can lead someone else to find it first.  In the
early days, the BCA required members to sign a paper agreeing to share the
treasure with the other members, if it was found as a result of shared
information. However, not many people were willing to sign such an
agreement and it had to be abandoned in order that the BCA itself could
grow.

     Since 1979 the BCA has issued a quarterly newsletter to publish such
information as the members are willing to share.  Much of what has been
published has been historical material that has shed light on the leading
characters in the story, such as Robert Morriss, James Ward, and the Hart
brothers.  Since 1986 there has also been much published speculation that
the Beale ciphers are not the simple book ciphers that they have long been
thought to be. The Reverend Stephen Cowart, in a painstaking search of all
three ciphers, found numerous correlations between elements and their
positions in the ciphers that have led many to believe that the enciphering
is based on a much more complex system than simply numbering the words in a
key document.  Others believe, however, that the correlations are simply
due to chance and that it is extremely unlikely that anything more complex
than a book cipher was available to Thomas Beale in 1822, or to James Ward
in 1885.

     The BCA has enjoyed several important successes over the years.  In 1975,
one of its members, by contacting the Library of Congress, was able to
obtain copies of the copyright papers filed by James Ward in 1885. Prior to
this, the Hart manuscript contained the only solid evidence that there had
ever been a Ward pamphlet, and many were skeptical that it had ever
existed.  However, the existence of the copyright papers spurred interest
in the pamphlet itself and in 1979 a copy was finally located among the
personal papers of William F. Friedman at the George C. Marshall Research
Foundation, in Lexington, Virginia.

     As a service to researchers, the BCA maintains a library of all known
articles written about the Beale treasure, including materials published by
the BCA itself.  Anyone seeking detailed information about the Beale
ciphers will find the BCA Research Library to be a valuable source of
material.

     Those interested in joining the BCA can write to the following address
for membership information:

                    The Beale Cypher Association
                    P.O. Box 236
                    Warrington, PA 18976

REFERENCES

1. Gillogly, James J., "The Beale Cipher: A Dissenting Opinion",
        Cryptologia, 1980, Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 116-119.

2. Hammer, Dr. Carl, "Signature Simulation and Certain Cryptographic
        Codes", Communications of the ACM, January 1971, Volume 14,
        Number 1, pp. 3-14.

3. Hart, George L., Sr., The Beale Papers, 67 page manuscript prepared
        for the Roanoke Public Library, Roanoke, Virginia, January 1952.

4. Kruh, Louis, "A Basic Probe of the Beale Cipher as a Bamboozlement",
        Cryptologia, 1982, Volume 6, Number 4.

5. Kruh, Louis, "The Beale Cipher as a Bamboozlement - Part II",
        Cryptologia, 1988, Volume 12, Number 4.

6. Viemeister, Peter, The Beale Treasure, A History of a Mystery, published
        by: Hamilton's, P.O. Box 932, Bedford, Virginia 24523, 1987.

7. Ward, James B., The Beale Papers, Virginia Book and Job Print, 1885,
        reprinted by the Beale Cypher Association, 1979.

"HISTORY.DOC"


 

ADJUSTMENTS NECESSARY TO OBTAIN ERROR FREE CLEAR TEXT FROM B2

ADJUSTMENTS NECESSARY TO OBTAIN ERROR FREE CLEAR TEXT FROM B2
-------------------------------------------------------------

Step One:  Replace comma missing from Ward version of B2 

    Position 571  [108] --->     Position 571 [10]
                             and Position 572  [8]

Step Two:  Correct seven typographical errors in Ward's B2 

       B2 Position    Ward    New   Adjustment
       -----------    ----    ---   ----------
  1        223          84     85   +1     
  2        500         117    116   -1       
  3        531          53     54   +1
  4        591         188    138   correct 3 mistaken for 8  
  5        667         440     40   eliminate duplicate 4  
  6        702          84     85   +1  
  7        723          96     95   -1

Step Three: Create Beale Cipher Table (BCT) to correct counting errors
            made by Beale or to adjust for differences between Beale's
            version of the DOI and the Standard DOI.

                     Corresponding  Conversion Rule
Group  BCT Elements  DOI Elements   (N = Position Number)
-----  ------------  -------------  ---------------------
  1       1 -  154      1 -  154    BCT[N] = DOI[N]
  2     155 -  157                  Indeterminate    
  3     158 -  241    157 -  240    BCT[N] = DOI[N - 1]
  4     242 -  245                  Indeterminate    
  5     246 -  466    246 -  466    BCT[N] = DOI[N]
  6     467 -  484                  Indeterminate    
  7     485 -  505    495 -  515    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 10]
  8     506 -  510                  Indeterminate    
  9     511 -  620    520 -  629    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 9]
 10     621 -  642                  Indeterminate    
 11     643 -  666    653 -  676    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 10]
 12     667 -  806                  Indeterminate    
 13     807 -  811    818 -  822    BCT[N] = DOI[N + 11]
 14     812 - 1004                  Indeterminate    
 15    1005           1073          BCT[N] = DOI[N + 68]
 16    1006 - 1322                  Indeterminate     


Step Four:  Use the elements of BCT to decipher B2.

Notes:

  A bar over a position number indicates that the element is 
  used in B2.

  An  asterisk  over  a  position  number  indicates  that  the 
  correct adjustment cannot be determined from analysis of B2.

    -     -  -   -      -  -     -       -  -       --        --
    1     2  3   4      5  6     7       8  9       10        11
    When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for

--          -- --       --  --        --    --    --    -- 
12   13     14 15       16  17        18    19    20    21
one  people to dissolve the political bands which have  connected 

--        --       --  -- --      --    --  --     -- --  --
22   23   24       25  26 27      28    29  30     31 32  33
them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, 

--  --       --  --    --      --   --  --  --   -- --     --  -- 
34  35       36  37    38      39   40  41  42   43 44     45  46
the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of

                                     +1T (typo: change 1 of 9)
--        --  --      --    -- --     --             --        -- 
47        48  49      50    51 52     53      54 55  56        57 
nature's  God entitle them,  a decent respect to the opinions  of

--       --       --   --   --     --      --  --     --    --
58       59       60   61   62     63      64  65     66    67 
mankind  requires that they should declare the causes which impel

            --
68   69 70  71   
them to the separation.

    --  --                   -- --   --             --   --   --
    72  73   74    75     76 77 78   79        80   81   82   83 
    We  hold these truths to be self-evident,  that all  men  are

+1E (typo: change 2 of 7)
--       --                                         --      
84       85      86    87    88  89      90  91     92       93 
created  equal;  that  they  are endowed by  their  Creator  with

                   -1U (typo: change 1 of 8)
--      --          --           --               ---   ---
94      95          96      97   98    99     100 101   102 
certain unalienable rights; that among these, are life, liberty,

          ---     --- ---                    ---           ---
103  104  105     106 107         108    109 110    111    112
and  the  pursuit of  happiness.  That,  to  secure these  rights,

                                 -1A (typo: change 1 of 3)
---             ---              ---  ---            ---  --- 
113         114 115        116   117  118      119   120  121 
governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers

---               ---                                    ---
122   123 124     125 126  127       128   129      130  131  132 
from  the consent of  the  governed; that, whenever any  form of

---        ---     ---         ---       ---        ---  
133        134     135         136 137   138    139 140 141 142 
government becomes destructive of  these ends,  it  is  the right

---                ---           ---         ---     ---
143 144 145    146 147   148 149 150     151 152 153 154      (*) 
of  the people to  alter or  to  abolish it, and to  institute a

*    *            *      -1L -1I        -1F
                         --- ---        --- 
155  156          157    158 159        160 161  162          163
new  government,  laying its foundation on  such principles,  and

                                * forms
164         165 166    167 168  169   170 171 172  173   174  175
organizing  its powers in  such form, as  to  them shall seem most

       -1L
       ---
176    177 178    179   180    181 182          183        184
likely to  effect their safety and happiness.   Prudence,  indeed,

-1I                -50E (typo: 188 = 138)          -1E
---                 ---                            ---
185   186      187  188         189  190           191    192 193 
will  dictate  that governments long established,  should not be 

-1B         -1F   -1L                     -1C
---         ---   ---                     ---    
194     195 196   197 198       199       200   201           202
changed for light and transient causes;   and,  accordingly,  all

                -1H                  -1M               -1D
                ---                  ---               ---
203        204  205     206  207     208 209  210      211 212
experience hath shown,  that mankind are more disposed to  suffer,

                                  -1S              -1R
                                  ---              ---
213    214     215  216           217   218 219    220        221 
while  evils   are  sufferable,   than  to  right  themselves by

                                                    -1A
                                                    --- 
222        223 224   225 226   227  228 229         230  231  232
abolishing the forms to  which they are accustomed. But, when a 

      -1L                                -1U                  -1I  
      ---                                ---                  ---
233   234   235 236    237 238           239      240         241 
long  train of  abuses and usurpations,  pursuing invariably  the


*    *       *        *
                           ---        ---          ---  
242  243     244      245  246    247 248    249   250    251
same object, envinces a    design to  reduce them  under  absolute 

---
252        253 254 255   256    257 258 259   260   261 262   263
despotism, it  is  their right, it  is  their duty, to  throw off

                                        ---                 ---
264   265         266  267 268     269  270     271  272    273 
such  government  and  to  provide new  guards  for  their  future

             --- 
274          275   276  277   278  279      280         281 282 
security.    Such  has  been  the  patient  sufferance  of  these

          --- ---      --- ---           --- 
283       284 285  286 287 288 289       290   291        292  293
colonies, and such is  now the necessity which constrains them to

                    ---                          ---      ---
294    295   296    297     298 299          300 301      302 303
alter  their former systems of  government.  The history  of  the

         ---               ---    
304      305   306  307    308     309 310  311      312 313 
present  King  of   Great  Britain is  a    history  of  repeated 

---           ---                            ---
314       315 316           317 318      319 320     321      322
injuries  and usurpations,  all having,  in  direct  object,  the

323           324 325 326      327     328  329   330     331 332      
establishment of  an  absolute tyranny over these States. To  prove

333   334 335   336 337       338 339 340    341  
this, let facts be  submitted to  a   candid world:--

             ---
    342 343  344     345 346    347 348  349  350   351       352
    He  has  refused his assent to  laws the  most  wholesome and

---
353       354 355 356    357 
necessary for the public good.

             ---     
    358  359 360       361 362       363 364  365  366 367
    He   has forbidden his governors to  pass laws of  immediate

             ---         ---
368 369      370         371    372       373 374   375       376 
and pressing importance, unless suspended in  their operation till

377 378    379    380 381       382  383  384 385        386 387
his assent should be  obtained; and, when so  suspended, he  has 

---
388     389       390 391    392 393
utterly neglected to  attend to  them.

    ---                            --- 
    394 395 396     397 398  399   400  401 402 403           404         
    He  has refused to  pass other laws for the accommodation of 

---   ---                   ---
405   406       407 408     409    410   411    412    413
large districts of  people, unless those people would  relinquish 

                                          --- 
414   415    416 417             418 419  420          421 422 
the   right  of  representation  in  the  legislature: a   right 

423         424 425   426 427        428 429     430
inestimable to  them, and formidable to  tyrants only.

    431 432 433    434      435         436    437 438    439
    He  has called together legislative bodies at  places unusual,

U/W (typo: 440U = 40W, change 1 of 2)
---
440             441  442     443  444 445        446 447    448  
uncomfortable,  and  distant from the depository of  their  public

449       450 451 452  453     454 455       456  457  458
records,  for the sole purpose of  fatiguing them into compliance

459  460 461 
with his measures.
                                                 *            *
                                         ---
    462  463  464        465             466     467          468 
    He   has  dissolved  representative  houses  repeatedly   for

*         *    *     *         *   *         *   *   *      *   *  
469       470  471   472       473 474       475 476 477    478 479 
opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on  the rights of  the 

*  
480
people.

    *   *   *        *  +10B +10E      
                         --- ---
    481 482 483      484 485 486  487  488   489  490           491
    He  has refused, for a   long time after such dissolutions, to 

492    493     494  495 496       497     498  499          500
cause  others  to   be  elected;  whereby the  legislative  powers,
                                 +10S     *   *   *      *   *
                                 ---
501       502 503           504  505      506 507 508    509 510
incapable of  annihilation, have returned to  the people at  large

+9E
---
511  512    513         514  515   516         517 518  519      
for  their  exercise;   the  state remaining,  in  the  meantime,

                       * dangers
520      521 522  523  524     525 526       527   528      529   
exposed  to  all  the  danger  of  invasion  from  without, and

530         531 
convulsions within.
                                                      +9N
                                                      ---
    532 533 534        535 536     537 538        539 540   541
    He  has endeavored to  prevent the population of  these States;

                                          +9E
                                          ---
542  543   544       545         546 547  548  549            550
for  that  purpose,  obstructing the laws for  naturalization of

                          +9T             +9N
                          ---             ---
551          552      553 554  555    556 557       558   559  
foreigners,  refusing to  pass others to  encourage their migration

560      561 562     563  564        565 566 567             568
hither,  and raising the  conditions of  new appropriations  of 

569
lands.
                                          +9E
                                          ---
    570 571 572        573 574            575 576      577 578
    He  has obstructed the administration of  justice, by  refusing

           +9J +9D
           --- ---
579 580    581 582  583 584          585       586 
his assent to  laws for establishing judiciary powers.

    587 588  589   590    591       592 593 594   595    596  597 
    He  has  made  judges dependent on  his will  alone, for  the

            +9S                 +9E                     +9N
            ---                 ---                     ---
598     599 600   601       602 603 604    605 606      607 608   
tenure  of  their offices,  and the amount and payment  of  their


609
salaries.
                                                            +9E
                                                            ---
    610 611 612     613 614       615 616 617      618 619  620
    He  has erected a   multitude of  new offices, and sent hither

*       *   *        *   *      *   *        *    *    *    *

621     622 623      624 625    626 627      628  629  630  631
swarms  of  officers to  harass our people,  and  eat  out  their

*
  * supplies
632 
substance.

    *   *   *    *     *   *   *    *   *      *        +10T
                                 * times                ---
    633 634 635  636   637 638 639  640 641    642      643
    He  has kept among us, in  time of  peace, standing armies,

                    +10I
                    ---     * legislature
644     645 646     647 648 649
without the consent of  our legislatures.

    650  651 652      653 654    655 656      657         658 659
    He   has affected to  render the military independent of, and

660       661 662 663   664  
superior, to  the civil power.

        +10F *        *     *      *   *       *   *   *   *
        --- 
    665 666 667       668  669     670 671     672 673 674 675
    He  has combined, with others, to  subject us  to  a   jurisdiction 

*        *   *   *              *   *              *   *    *
676      677 678 679            680 681            682 683  684
foreign  to  our Constitution,  and unacknowledged by  our  laws;

*      *   *      *   *     *    *   *         *
685    686 687    688 689   690  691 692       693 
giving his assent to  their acts of  pretended legislation:

    *   *          *     *      *   *     *      *     *
    694 695        696   697    698 699   700    701   702 
    For quartering large bodies of  armed troops among us:

    *   *          *    *   *   *    *      *    *           *   *
    703 704        705  706 707 708  709    710  711         712 713
    For protecting them by  a   mock trial, from punishment, for any 


*        *      *    *      *      *   *   *           *   *
714      715    716  717    718    719 720 721         722 723
murders  which  they should commit on  the inhabitants of  these 

*
724
States:

    *   *       *   *   *     *    *   *     *   *   *
    725 726     727 728 729   730  731 732   733 734 735
    For cutting off our trade with all parts of  the world:

    *   *        *     *   *   *       *   *
    736 737      738   739 740 741     742 743 
    For imposing taxes on  us  without our consent:

    *   *         *   *   *   *       *   *   *       *   *     *
                                               * benefits
    744 745       746 747 748  749    750 751 752     753 754   755
    For depriving us, in  many cases, of  the benefit of  trial by 
*
756
jury:

    *    *            *   *      *    *   *   *      *    *
    757  758          759 760    761  762 763 764    765  766 
    For  transporting us  beyond seas to  be  tried  for  pretended 
*
767
offences:

    *     *           *    *     *       *   *        *     *   *
    768   769         770  771   772     773 774      775   776 777  
    For   abolishing  the  free  system  of  English  laws  in  a 

*             *           *              *         *    *
778           779         780            781       782  783
neighboring   province,   establishing   therein   an   arbitrary

*           *   *         *   *           *   *   *   *      *   * 
784         785 786       787 788         789 790 791 792    793 794 
government, and enlarging its boundaries, so  as  to  render it  at 

*     *   *        *   *   *          *    *            *    *
795   796 797      798 799 800        801  802          803  804
once  an  example  and fit instrument for  introducing  the  same

*        *   +11V
              --- * in
805      806  807       808   809
absolute rule into      these colonies:



         +11Y   *    *   *         *          *    *   *
         ---
    810  811    812  813 814       815        816  817  818 
    For  taking away our charters, abolishing our  most valuable

*     *   *         *              *   *      *   *   *
                                         * forms
819   820 821       822(y)         823 824    825 826 827
laws, and altering, fundamentally, the powers of  our governments:

    *   *          *   *   *             *   *         *
                            * legislature
    828 829        830 831 832           833 834       835
    For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves 

*        *    *     *   *         *   *   *   *   *     *
836      837  838   839 840       841 842 843 844 845   846
invested with power to  legislate for us  in  all cases whatsoever.

    *   *   *         *          *     *   *         *   *    *  *   
    847 848 849       850        851   852 853       854 855 856 857
    He  has abdicated government here, by  declaring us  out of  his 

*           *   *      *   *       *
858         859 860    861 862     863  
protection, and waging war against us.

    *   *    *         *   *      *       *   *        *      *
    864 865  866       867 868    869     870 871      872    873
    He  has  plundered our seas,  ravaged our coasts,  burnt  our 

*      *   *         *   *     *   *   *
874    875 876       877 878   879 880 881
towns, and destroyed the lives of  our people.

    *   *    *   *    *      *            *     *      *   *
    882 883  884 885  886    887          888   889    890 891 
    He  is,  at  this time,  transporting large armies of  foreign 

*            *   *        *   *      *   *       *            *
                  * compleat
892          893 894      895 896    897 898     899          900
mercenaries  to  complete the works  of  death,  desolation,  and 

*        *       *      *    *             *   *       *(&) *
901      902     903    904  905           906 907     908  909
tyranny, already begun, with circumstances of  cruelty and  perfidy

*         *          *   *   *     *         *     *    *
910       911        912 913 914   915       916   917  918
scarcely  paralleled in  the most  barbarous ages, and  totally 
 
*        *   *    *   *   *         *
919      920 921  922 923 924       925
unworthy the head of  a   civilized nation.
    *   *   *           *   *      *          *     *       *   *
    926 927 928         929 930    931        932   933     934 935
    He  has constrained our fellow citizens,  taken captive on  the

*     *     *   *    *    *       *     *        *   *       *
936   937   938 939  940  941     942   943      944 945     946
high  seas, to  bear arms against their country, to  become  the

*            *   *      *          *    *         *   *   *
947          948 949    950        951  952       953 954 955
executioners of  their  friends,   and  brethren, or  to  fall

*          *   *     *
956        957 958   959  
themselves by  their hands.

    *   *   *       *        *             *       *    *    *
    960 961 962     963      964           965     966  967  968
    He  has excited domestic insurrections amongst us,  and  has

*          *   *     *   *   *           *   *    *          *
969        970 971   972 973 974         975 976  977        978
endeavored to  bring on  the inhabitants of  our  frontiers, the

*          *       *         *      *     *    *   *       *   *
979        980     981       982    983   984  985 986     987 988 
merciless  Indian  savages,  whose  known rule of  warfare is  an

*               *           *   *   *     *       *   *
989             990         991 992 993   994(x)  995 996
undistinguished destruction of  all ages, sexes,  and conditions.

    *   *     *     *    *     *            *    *    -11X or +68X * 
                                                      ----
    997 998   999   1000 1001  1002         1003 1004 1005       1006
    In  every stage of   these oppressions, we   have petitioned for

*        *    *    *    *      *      *    *        *         *
1007     1008 1009 1010 1011   1012   1013 1014     1015      1016
redress, in   the  most humble terms; our  repeated petitions have

----------------------------------------------------------------- 
* Adjustments for positions 1017 - 1322 cannot be determined from
analysis of B2.
----------------------------------------------------------------- 

1017 1018     1019 1020 1021     1022     1023 1024    1025  1026
been answered only by   repeated injury.  A    prince, whose character 

1027 1028 1029   1030 1031  1032 1033  1034 1035   1036 1037    1038
is   thus marked by   every act  which may  define a    tyrant, is  

1039  1040 1041 1042 1043  1044 1045 1046 1047
unfit to   be   the  ruler of   a    free people.

    1048 1049 1050 1051 1052    1053 1054      1055 1056 1057
    Nor  have we   been wanting in   attention to   our  British 

1058      1059 1060 1061   1062  1063 1064 1065 1066  1067 1068
brethern. We   have warned them, from time to   time, of   attempts

(*)  1069 1070  1071        1072 1073(x) 1074 1075          1076
made by   their legislature to   extend  an   unwarrantable jurisdiction 

1077 1078 1079 1080 1081     1082 1083 1084 1085          1086 1087
over us.  We   have reminded them of   the  circumstances of   our 

1088       1089 1090       1091  1092 1093 1094     1095 1096  1097     
emigration and  settlement here. We   have appealed to   their native 

1098    1099 1100         1101 1102 1103 1104     1105  1106 1107 1108
justice and  magnanimity, and  we   have conjured them, by   the  ties 

1109 1110 1111   1112     1113 1114    1115  1116         1117  1118
of   our  common kindred, to   disavow these usurpations, which would 

1119        1120      1121 1122        1123 1124            1125
inevitably  interrupt our  connections and  correspondence. They, 

1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132  1133 1134    1135 1136 1137
too, have been deaf to   the  voice of   justice and  of   consanguinity.  

1138 1139  1140       1141      1142 1143 1144      1145   1146
We   must, therefore, acquiesce in   the  necessity which  denounces 

1147 1148        1149 1150 1151  1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158
our  separation, and  hold them, as   we   hold the  rest of   mankind, 

1159    1160 1161 1162 1163   1164 
enemies in   war, in   peace, friends.


    1165 1166       1167 1168            1169 1170 1171   1172   1173
    We,  therefore, the  representatives of   the  United States of 

1174     1175 1176    1177     1178       1179      1180 1181 1182
America, in   general Congress assembled, appealing to   the  Supreme 

1183  1184 1185 1186  1187 1188 1189      1190 1191 1192        1193
Judge of   the  world for  the  rectitude of   our  intentions, do,

1194 1195 1196  1197 1198 (*)  1199      1200 1201 1202 1203   1204 
in   the  name, and  by   the  authority of   the  good people of   

1205  1206      1207     1208    1209 1210     1211 1212  1213 
these colonies, solemnly publish and  declare, that these united 

1214     1215 1216 1217 1218  1219  1220 1221 1222 1223 1224
colonies are, and  of   right ought to   be,  free and  independent  

1225    1226 1227  1228 1229     1230 1231 1232       1233 1234
states: that they  are  absolved from all  allegiance to   the 

1235    1236   1237 1238 1239 1240      1241       1242    1243 1244
British Crown, and  that all  political connection between them and

1245 1246  1247 1248  1249    1250 1251 1252  1253 1254 1255
the  state of   Great Britain is,  and  ought to   be,  totally 

1256       1257 1258  1259 1260 1261 1262        1263    1264 1265 
dissolved; and  that, as   free and  independent states, they have 

1266 1267  1268 1269 1270 1271     1272   1273     1274
full power to   levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, 

1275      1276      1277 1278 1279 1280 1281  1282 1283 1284   1285  
establish commerce, and  to   do   all  other acts and  things which 

1286        1287   1288 1289 1290  1291 1292 1293 1294 1295    1296  
independent states may  of   right do.  And, for  the  support of

1297 1298         1299 1300 1301 1302     1303 1304 1305       1306  
this declaration, with a    firm reliance on   the  protection of    

1307   1308        1309 1310     1311   1312 1313 1314  1315 1316
Divine Providence, we   mutually pledge to   each other our  lives,

1317 1318      1319 1320 1321   1322
our  fortunes, and  our  sacred honor.

"DOI.DOC"


 

THE BEALE PAPERS


1---------------------------------------------------------------------------1
     THE BEALE PAPERS, CONTAINING AUTHENTIC STATEMENTS REGARDING THE 
     TREASURE BURIED IN 1819 AND 1821, NEAR BUFORDS, IN BEDFORD COUNTY,
     VIRGINIA, AND WHICH HAS NEVER BEEN RECOVERED.
2---------------------------------------------------------------------------2
     Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1885, by J. B. Ward,
     in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
3---------------------------------------------------------------------------3
     The following details of an incident that happened many years ago, but
which has lost none of its interest on that account, are now given to the
public for the first time.  Until now, for reasons which will be apparent to
every one, all knowledge of this affair was confined to a very limited circle
to the writer's immediate family, and to one old and valued friend, upon whose
discretion he could always rely; nor was it ever intended that it should
travel beyond that circle; but circumstances over which he has no control,
pecuniary embarrassments of a pressing character, and duty to a dependent
family requiring his undivided attention, force him to abandon a task to which
he has devoted the best years of his life, but which seems as far from
accomplishment as at the start.  He is, therefore, compelled, however
unwillingly, to relinquish to others the elucidation of the Beale papers,
not doubting that of the many who will give the subject attention, some one,
through fortune or accident, will speedily solve their mystery and secure the
prize which has eluded him.
     It can be readily imagined that this course was not determined upon all
at once; regardless of the entreaties of his family and the persistent advice
of his friend, who were formerly as sanguine as himself, he stubbornly
continued his investigations, until absolute want stared him in the face and
forced him to yield to their persuasions.  Having now lost all hope of benefit
from this source himself, he is not unwilling that others may receive it, and
only hopes that the prize may fall to some poor, but honest man, who will use
his discovery not solely for the promotion of his own enjoyment, but for the
welfare of others.
     Until the writer lost all hope of ultimate success, he toiled faithfully
at his work; unlike any other pursuit with practical and natural results, a
charm attended it, independent of the ultimate benefit he expected, and the
possibility of success lent an interest and excitement to the work not to be
resisted.  It would be difficult to portray the delight he experienced when
4---------------------------------------------------------------------------4
accident revealed to him the explanation of the paper marked "2."  Unmeaning,
as this had hitherto been, it was now fully explained, and no difficulty was
apprehended in mastering the others; but this accident, affording so much
pleasure at the time, was a most unfortunate one for him, as it induced him to
neglect family, friends, and all legitimate pursuits for what has proved, so
far, the veriest illusion.
     It will be seen by a perusal of Mr. Beale's letter to Mr. Morriss that he
promised, under certain contingences, such as failure to see or communicate
with him in a given time, to furnish a key by which the papers would be fully
explained.  As the failure to do either actually occurred, and the promised
explanation has never been received, it may possibly remain in the hands of
some relative or friend of Beale's, or some other person engaged in the
enterprise with him.  That they would attach no importance to a seemingly
unintelligible writing seems quite natural; but their attention being called
to them by the publication of this narrative, may result in eventually bringing
to light the missing paper.
     Mr. Beale, who deposited with Mr. Morriss the papers which form the
subject of this history, is described as being a gentleman well educated,
evidently of good family, and with popular manners.  What motives could have
influenced him and so many others to risk their health and their lives in such
an undertaking, except the natural love of daring adventure, with its
consequent excitement, we can only conjecture.  We may suppose, and indeed we
have his word for so doing, that they were infatuated with the dangers, and
with the wild and roving character of their lives, the charms of which lured
them farther and farther from civilization, until their lives were sacrificed
to their temerity.  This was the opinion of Mr. Morriss, and in this way only
can we account for the fact that the treasure for which they sacrificed so
much, constituting almost fabulous wealth, lies abandoned and unclaimed for
more than half a century.  Should any of my readers be more fortunate than
myself in discovering its place of concealment, I shall not only rejoice with
them, but feel that I have at least accomplished something in contributing to
the happiness of others.
5---------------------------------------------------------------------------5
     Robert Morriss, the custodian of the Beale papers, was born in 1778, in
the State of Maryland, but removed at an early age, with his family, to
Loudoun county, Va., where, in 1803, he married Miss Sarah Mitchell, a fine
looking and accomplished young lady of that county.  In obtaining such a wife
Mr. Morriss was peculiarly fortunate, as her subsequent career fully
demonstrated.  As a wife she was without reproach, as a generous and
sympathizing woman she was without an equal; the poor will long remember her
charities, and lament the friend they have lost.  Shortly after his removal to
Lynchburg, Mr. Morriss engaged in the mercantile business, and shortly
thereafter he became a purchaser and shipper of tobacco to an extent hitherto
unknown in this section.  In these pursuits he was eminently successful for
several years, and speedily accumulated a comfortable independence.  It was
during this period of his success that he erected the first brick building of
which the town could boast, and which still stands on Main street, a monument
to his enterprise. His private residence, the house now owned and occupied by
Max Guggenheimer, Esq., at the head of Main street, I think he also built. 
There the most unbounded hospitality reigned, and every facility for enjoyment
was furnished. The elite of the town assembled there more frequently than
elsewhere, and there are now living some whose most pleasant recollections are
associated with that period.
     The happiness of Mr. Morriss, however, was of short duration, and reverses
came when they were least expected.  Heavy purchases of tobacco, at ruinous
figures, in anticipation of an upward market, which visions were never
realized, swept from him in a moment the savings of years, and left him 
nothing save his honor and the sincere sympathy of the community with which to
begin the battle anew.
     It was at this time that Mrs. Morriss exhibited the loveliest traits of
her character.  Seemingly unmindful of her condition, with a smiling face and
cheering words, she so encouraged her husband that he become almost
reconciled to his fate.  Thrown thus upon his own resources, by the advice of
his wife, he leased for a term of years the Washington Hotel, known now as the
Arlington, on Church street, and commenced the business of hotel keeping.  His
kind disposition, strict probity, excellent management, and well ordered
household, soon rendered him famous as a host, and his reputation extended
even to other States.  His was the house par excellence of the town, and no
fashionable assemblages met at any other.  Finding, in a few
6---------------------------------------------------------------------------6
years, that his experiment was successful and his business remunerative, he
removed to the Franklin Hotel, now the Norvell House, the largest and best
arranged in the city.  This house he conducted for many years, enjoying the
friendship and countenance of the first men of the country.  Amongst his
guests and devoted personal friends Jackson, Clay, Coles, Witcher, Chief
Justice Marshall, and a host of others scarcely less distinguished, might
be enumerated.  but it was not the wealthy and distinguished alone who 
appreciated Mr. Morriss; the poor and lowly had blessings for the man who
sympathized with their misfortunes, and was ever ready to relieve their
distress.  Many poor but worthy families, whose descendants are now in our
midst, can remember the fact that his table supplied their daily food, not for
days and weeks only, but for months at a time; and as a farther instance of his
forbearance and unparalleled generosity, there are now living those who will
testify to the fact that he permitted a boarder, in no way connected with him,
to remain in his house for more than twenty years, and until he died, without
ever receiving the slightest renumeration, and that he was never made to feel
otherwise than as a favored guest.
     In manner Mr. Morriss was courteous and gentle; but when occasion
demanded, could be stern and determined, too; he was emphatically the master of
his house, and from his decision there was no appeal.  As an "old Virginia
gentleman", he was sans peur et sans reproache, and to a remarkable extent
possessed the confidence and affection of his friends.  After a checquered and
eventful life of more than eighty years, passed mostly in business, which
brought him in contact with all classes of people, he died, lamented by all,
and leaving not an enemy behind.  His death, which occurred in 1863, was just
two years subsequent to that of his wife.  It can be truly said that no
persons ever lived in a community for such a length of time who accomplished
more good during their lives, or whose death was more universally regretted.
     It was the unblemished character of the man, and the universal confidence
reposed in him, that induced Beale to entrust him with his secret, and in 
certain contingencies select him for a most important trust; that his
confidence was not misplaced, every one remembering Mr. Morriss will
acknowledge.
     It was in 1862, the second year of the Confederate war, that Mr. Morriss
first intimated the possession of a secret that was destined to make some
persons wealthy.  At first he was not very communicative, nor did I press him
to reveal what he seemed to speak of with reluctance; in a few weeks, however,
his mind seemed changed, and he voluntarily proffered his confidence.
7---------------------------------------------------------------------------7
Inviting me to his room, with no one to interrupt us, he gave me an outline
of the matter, which soon enlisted my interest and created an intense longing
to learn more.  About this time, however, affairs of importance required my
presence in Richmond, and prevented further communication between us until
after my return, when I found him ready to resume the interesting subject.  A
private interview was soon arranged, and, after several preliminaries had been
complied with, the papers upon which this history is based were delivered into
my possession.
     The reasons which influenced him in selecting me for the trust, he gave,
and were in substance as follows:  First: Friendship for myself and family,
whom he would benefit if he could.  Second: The knowledge that I was young and
in circumstances to afford leisure for the task imposed; and, finally, a 
confidence that I would regard his instructions, and carry out his wishes
regarding his charge.  These, and perhaps others, he gave during our frequent
conversations upon the subject, and doubtless believed he was conferring a 
favor which would redound greatly to my advantage.  That it has proved
otherwise is a misfortune to me, but no fault of his.  The conditions alluded
to above were that I should devote as much time as was practicable to the
papers he had given me; master, if possible, their contents, and if successful
in deciphering their meaning and eventually finding the treasure, to
appropriate one-half of his portion as a remuneration for my services; the
other half to be distributed to certain relatives and connexions of his own,
whose names he gave me; the remainder to be held by me in trust for the
benefit of such claimants as might at any time appear, and be able to
authenticate their claims.  This latter amount, to be left intact, subject to
such demands, for the space of twenty years, when, if still unclaimed, it
should revert to myself or my heirs, as a legacy from himself.
     As there was nothing objectionable in this, the required promise was
given, and the box and contents were placed in my possession.
     When the writer recalls his anxious hours, his midnight vigils, his toils,
his hopes and disappointments, all consequent upon this promise, he can only
conclude that the legacy of Mr. Morriss was not as he designed it--a blessing
in disguise.
     Having assumed the responsibilities and consented to the requirements of
Mr. Morriss, I determined to devote as much time to the accomplishment of the
task as could be consistently spared from other duties.  With this purpose in
view, I requested from Mr. Morriss a statement of every particular connected
8---------------------------------------------------------------------------8
with the affair, or having the slightest bearing upon it, together with such
views and opinions of his own as might ultimately benefit me in my researches.
In reply, he gave me the following, which I reduced to writing and filed with
the papers for future reference:
     "It was in the month of January, 1820, while keeping the Washington
Hotel, that I first saw and became acquainted with Beale.  In company with two
others, he came to my house seeking entertainment for himself and friends.  
Being assured of a comfortable provision for themselves and their horses,
Beale stated his intention of remaining for the winter, should nothing occur
to alter his plans, but that the gentlemen accompanying him would leave in a
few days for Richmond, near which place they resided, and that they were
anxious to reach their homes, from which they had long been absent.  They all
appeared to be gentlemen, well born, and well educated, with refined and
courteous manners, and with a free and independent air, which rendered them
peculiarly attractive.  After remaining a week or ten days, the two left, after
expressions of satisfaction with their visit.  Beale, who remained, soon became
a favored and popular guest; his social disposition and friendly demeanor
rendered him extremely popular with every one, particularly the ladies, and a
pleasant and friendly intercourse was quickly established between them.
     "In person, he was about six feet in height, with jet black eyes and hair
of the same color, worn longer than was the style at that time.  His form was
symmetrical, and gave evidence of unusual strength and activity; but his
distinguishing feature was a dark and swarthy complexion, as if much exposure
to the sun and weather had thoroughly tanned and discolored him; this, however,
did not detract from his appearance, and I thought him the handsomest man I had
ever seen.  Altogether, he was a model of manly beauty, favored by the ladies
and envied by men.  To the first he was reverentially tender and polite; to the
latter, affable and courteous, when they kept within bounds, but if they were
supercilious or presuming, the lion was aroused, and woe to the man who
offended him.  Instances of this character occurred more than once while he was
my guest, and always resulted in his demanding and receiving an apology.  His
character soon became universally known, and he was no longer troubled by
impertinence.
    "Such a man was Thomas J. Beale, as he appeared in 1820, and in his
subsequent visit to my house.  He registered simply from Virginia, but I am of
the impression he was from some western portion of the State.  Curiously
enough, he never
9---------------------------------------------------------------------------9
adverted to his family or to his antecedents, nor did I question him concerning
them, as I would have done had I dreamed of the interest that in the future
would attach to his name.
     "He remained with me until about the latter end of the following March,
when he left, with the same friends who first accompanied him to my house, and
who had returned some days before.
     "After this I heard nothing from him until January, 1822, when he once
more made his appearance, the same genial and popular gentleman as before but,
if possible, darker and swarthier than ever.  His welcome was a genuine one, as
all were delighted to see him.
     "In the spring, at about the same time, he again left, but before doing
so, handed me this box, which, as he said, contained papers of value and
importance; and which he desired to leave in my charge until called for
hereafter.  Of course, I did not decline to receive them, but little imagined
their importance until his letter from St. Louis was received.  This letter I
carefully preserved, and it will be given with these papers.  The box was of
iron, carefully locked, and of such weight as to render it a safe depository
for articles of value.  I placed it in a safe and secure place, where it could
not be disturbed until such time as it should be demanded by its owner.  The
letter alluded to above was the last communication I ever received from Beale,
and I never saw him again.  I can only suppose that he was killed by Indians, 
afar from his home, though nothing was heard of his death.  His companions,
too, must all have shared his fate, as no one has ever demanded the box or
claimed his effects.  The box was left in my hands in the Spring of 1822, and
by authority of his letter, I should have examined its contents in 1832, ten
years thereafter, having heard nothing from Beale in the meantime; but it was
not until 1845, some twenty-three years after it came into my possession, that
I decided upon opening it.  During that year I had the lock broken, and, with
the exception of the two letters addressed to myself, and some old receipts,
found only some unintelligible papers, covered with figures, and totally
incomprehensible to me.
     "According to his letter, these papers convey all the information
necessary to find the treasure he has concealed, and upon you devolves the
responsibility of recovering it.  Should you succeed you will be amply
compensated for your work, and others near and dear to me will likewise be
benefitted.  The end is worth all your exertions, and I have every hope that
success will reward your efforts."
10-------------------------------------------------------------------------10
     Such, in substance, was the statement of Mr. Morriss in answer to the 
various interrogations propounded to him; and finding that I could elicit no
further information, I resolved to do the best I could with the limited means
at my disposal.  I commenced by reading over and over again the letters to Mr.
Morriss, endeavoring to impress each syllable they contained on my memory, and
to extract from them, if possible, some meaning or allusion that might give,
perhaps, a faint or barely perceptible hint as a guide; no such clue, however,
could I find, and where or how to commence was a problem I found most
difficult to solve.  To systematize a plan for my work I arranged the papers
in the order of their length, and numbered them, designing to commence with
the first, and devote my whole attention to that until I had either unravelled
its meaning or was convinced of its impossibility--afterwards to take up the
others and proceed as before.
     All of this I did in the course of time, but failed so completely that
my hopes of solving the mystery were well nigh abandoned.  My thoughts,
however, were constantly upon it, and the figures contained in each paper, in
their regular order, were fixed in my memory.  My impression was that each
figure represented a letter, but as the numbers so greatly exceeded the letters
of the alphabet, that many different numbers represented the same letter. 
With this idea, a test was made of every book I could procure, by numbering
its letters and comparing the numbers with those of the manuscript; all to no
purpose, however, until the Declaration of Independence afforded the clue to
one of the papers, and revived all my hopes.  To enable my readers to better 
understand the explanation of this paper, the Declaration of Independence is
given herewith, and will be of interest to those designing to follow up my
investigations.  When I first made this discovery, I thought I had the key to
the whole, but soon ascertained that further work was necessary before my task
was completed.  The encouragement afforded, however, by this discovery enabled
me to proceed, and I have persisted in my labors to the present time.  Now, as
I have already said, I am forced by circumstances to devote my time to other
pursuits, and to abandon hopes which were destined never to be realized.
     The following is the letter addressed to Mr. Morriss by Beale, and dated
St. Louis, May, 1822, and was the latest communication ever received from him:
11-------------------------------------------------------------------------11
St. Louis, Mo., May 9th, 1822.
Robt. Morris, Esq.: 
     My Esteemed Friend:--Ever since leaving my comfortable quarters at your
house I have been journeying to this place, and only succeeded in reaching it
yesterday. I have had altogether a pleasant time, the weather being fine and
the atmosphere bracing.  I shall remain here a week or ten days longer, then
"ho" for the plains, to hunt the buffalo and encounter the savage grizzlies.
How long I may be absent I cannot now determine, certainly not less than two
years, perhaps longer.
     With regard to the box left in your charge, I have a few words to say, and
if you will permit me, give you some instructions concerning it.  It contains
papers vitally affecting the fortunes of myself and many others engaged in
business with me, and in the event of my death, its loss might be irreparable.
You will, therefore, see the necessity of guarding it with vigilance and care
to prevent so great a catastrophe.  It also contains some letters addressed to 
yourself, and which will be necessary to enlighten you concerning the business
in which we are engaged.   Should none of us ever return you will please
preserve carefully the box for the period of ten years from the date of this
letter, and if I, or no one with authority from me, during that time demands
its restoration, you will open it, which can be done by removing the lock. 
You will find, in addition to the papers addressed to you, other papers which 
will be unintelligible without the aid of a key to assist you.  Such a key I
have left in the hands of a friend in this place, sealed, addressed to
yourself, and endorsed not to be delivered until June, 1832.  By means of this
you will understand fully all you will be required to do.
     I know you will cheerfully comply with my request, thus adding to the many
obligations under which you have already placed me. In the meantime, should
death or sickness happen to you, to which all are liable, please select from
among your friends some one worthy, and to him hand this letter, and to him
delegate your authority.  I have been thus particular in my instructions, in
consequence of the somewhat perilous enterprise in which we are engaged, but
trust we shall meet long ere the time expires, and so save you this trouble.
Be the result what it may, however, the game is worth the candle, and we will
play it to the end.
     With kindest wishes for your most excellent wife, compliments to the
ladies, a good word to enquiring friends, if there be any, and assurances of
my highest esteem for yourself, I remain as ever,
     Your sincere friend, T.J.B.
     After the reception of this letter, Mr. Morriss states that he was 
particularly careful to see the box securely placed where it could remain in
absolute safety, so long as the exigencies of the case might require; the 
letter, too, he was equally careful to preserve for future use, should it be
needed.  Having done all that was required of him, Mr. Morriss could only
await Beale's return, or some communication from him.  In either case he was
disappointed.
12-------------------------------------------------------------------------12
              He never saw Beale again, nor did a line or message ever reach
him.  The two years passed away during which he said he would be absent, then
three, four, and so on to ten; still not a line or message to tell whether he
were living or dead.  Mr. Morriss felt much uneasiness about him, but had had
no means of satisfying his doubts; ten years had passed; 1832 was at hand, and
he was now at liberty to open the box, but he resolved to wait on, vainly
hoping that something definite would reach him.
     During this period rumors of Indian outrages and massacres were current,
but no mention of Beale's name ever occurred.  What became of him and his
companions is left entirely to conjecture.  Whether he was slain by Indians, or
killed by the savage animals of the Rocky Mountains, or whether exposure, and
perhaps privation, did its work can never be told.  One thing at least is
certain, that of the young and gallant band, whose buoyant spirits led them to
seek such a life, and to forsake the comforts of home, with all its enjoyments,
for the dangers and privations they must necessarily encounter, not a survivor
remains.
     Though Mr. Morriss was aware of the contents of the box in 1845, it was
not until 1862, forty years after he received it, that he thought proper to
mention its existence, and to myself alone did he then divulge it.  He had
become long since satisfied that the parties were no longer living, but his
delicacy of feeling prevented his assuming as a fact, a matter so pregnant with
consequences.  He frequently decided upon doing so, and as often delayed it for
another time; and when at last he did speak of the matter it was with seeming
reluctance, and as if he felt he was committing a wrong.  But the story once
told, he evinced up to the time of his death the greatest interest in my 
success, and in frequent interviews always encouraged me to proceed.
     It is now more than twenty years since these papers came into my hands,
and, with the exception of one of them, they are still as incomprehensible as
ever.  Much time was devoted to this one, and those who engage in the matter
will be saved what has been consumed upon it by myself.
     Before giving the papers to the public, I would say a word to those who
may take an interest in them, and give them a little advice, acquired by bitter
experience.  It is, to devote only such time as can be spared from your
legitimate business to the task, and if you can spare no time, let the matter
alone.  Should you disregard my advice, do not hold me responsible that the 
poverty you have courted is more easily found than the accomplishment of your
wishes, and I would avoid the sight of another reduced to my condition.  Nor
is it necessary to devote the 
13-------------------------------------------------------------------------13
time that I did to this matter, as accident alone, without the promised key,
will ever develop the mystery.  If revealed by accident, a few hours devoted to
the subject may accomplish results which were denied to years of patient toil.
Again, never, as I have done, sacrifice your own and your family's interests
to what may prove an illusion; but as I have already said, when your day's
work is done, and you are comfortably seated by your good fire, a short time
devoted to the subject can injure no one, and may bring its reward.
     By pursuing this policy, your interests will not suffer, your family will
be cared for, and your thoughts will not be absorbed to the exclusion of other
important affairs.  With this admonition.  I submit to my readers the papers
upon which this narrative is founded.
     The first in order is the letter from Beale to Mr. Morriss, which will
give the reader a clearer conception of all the facts connected with the case,
and enable him to understand as fully as I myself do, the present status of the
affair.  The letter is as follows:
Lynchburg, January 4th, 1822.
My Dear Friend Morriss:--You will, doubtless, be surprised when you discover,
from a perusal of this letter, the importance of the trust confided to you, and
the confidence reposed in your honor, by parties whom you have never seen, and
whose names even you have never heard.  The reasons are simple and easily
told; it was imperative upon us that some one here should be selected to carry
out our wishes in case of accident to ourselves, and your reputation as a man
of the sternest integrity, unblemished honor, and business capacity, influenced
them to select you in place of others better known, but, perhaps, not so
reliable as yourself.  It was with this design that I first visited your house,
two years since, that I might judge by personal observation if your reputation
was merited.  To enable me the better to do so, I remained with you more than
three months, and until I was fully satisfied as to your character.  This
visit was made by the request of my associates, and you can judge from their
action whether my report was a favorable one.
     I will now give you some idea of the enterprise in which we are engaged,
and the duties which will be required of you in connection therewith; first
assuring you, however, that your compensation for the trouble will be ample,
as you have been unanimously made one of our association, and as such are
entitled to share equally with the others.
     Some five years since I, in connection with several friends, who, like
myself, were fond of adventure, and if mixed with a little danger all the more
acceptable, determined to visit the great Western plains and enjoy ourselves
in hunting buffalo, grizzly bears, and such other game as the country would
afford. This, at that time, was our sole object, and we at once proceeded to
put it in execution.  On account of Indians and other dangers incident to such
an undertaking, we determined to raise a party of not less than thirty 
individuals, of good character  
14-------------------------------------------------------------------------14
                               and standing, who would be pleasant companions,
and financially able to encounter the expense.  With this object in view, each
one of us suggested the matter to his several friends and acquaintances, and in
a few weeks the requisite number had signed the conditions, and were admitted
as members of the party.  Some few refused to join with us, being, doubtless,
deterred by the dangers, but such men we did not want, and were glad of their
refusal.
     The company being formed, we forthwith commenced our preparations, and, 
early in April, 1817, left old Virginia for St. Louis, Mo., where we expected
to purchase the necessary outfits, procure a guide and two or three servants,
and obtain such information and advice as might be beneficial hereafter.  All
was done as intended, and we left St. Louis the 19th May, to be absent two
years, our objective point being Santa Fe, which we intended to reach in the
ensuing Fall, and there establish ourselves in winter quarters.
     After leaving St. Louis we were advised by our guide to form a regular
military organization, with a captain, to be elected by the members, to whom
should be given sole authority to manage our affairs, and, in cases of
necessity, ensure united action.  This was agreed to, and each member of the
party bound himself by a solemn obligation to obey, at all times, the orders
of their captain, or, in the event of refusal, to leave the company at once.
This arrangement was to remain in force for two years, or for the period of
our expected absence.  Tyranny, partiality, incompetency, or other improper
conduct on the part of the captain, was to be punished by deposing him from
his office, if a majority of the company desired his dismissal.  All this being
arranged, and a set of laws framed, by which the conduct of the members was
to be regulated, the election was held, and resulted in choosing me as their
leader.
     It is not my purpose now to give you details of our wanderings, or of the
pleasures or dangers we encountered.  All this I will reserve until we meet
again, when it will be a pleasure to recall incidents that will always be fresh
in my memory.
     About the first of December we reached our destination, Santa Fe, and
prepared for a long and welcome rest from the fatigues of our journey. Nothing
of interest occurred during the winter, and of this little Mexican town we soon
became heartily tired.  We longed for the advent of weather which would enable
us to resume our wanderings and our exhilerating pursuits.
     Early in March some of the party, to vary the monotony of their lives,
determined upon a short excursion, for the purpose of hunting and examining the
country around us.  They expected to be only a few days absent, but days passed
into weeks, and weeks into a month or more before we had any tidings of the
party.  We had become exceedingly uneasy, and were preparing to send out scouts
to trace them, if possible, when two of the party arrived, and gave an
explanation of their absence.  It appears that when they left Santa Fe they 
pursued a northerly course for some days, being successful in finding an
abundance of game, which they secured, and were on the eve of returning when
they discovered on their left an immense herd of buffaloes, heading for a
valley just perceptible in the distance.  They determined to follow them, and
secure as many as possible.  Keeping well together, they followed their trail
for two weeks or more, securing many and stampeding the rest.
15-------------------------------------------------------------------------15
     One day, while folowing them, the party encamped in a small ravine, some
250 or 300 miles to the north of Santa Fe, and with their horses tethered, were
preparing their evening meal, when one of the men discovered in a cleft of the
rocks something that had the appearance of gold.  Upon showing it to the
others it was pronounced to be gold, and much excitement was the natural
consequence.  Messengers were at once dispatched to inform me of the facts,
and request my presence with the rest of the party, and with supplies for an
indefinite time.  All the pleasures and temptations which had lured them to the
plains were now forgotten, and visions of boundless wealth and future grandeur
were the only ideas entertained.  Upon reaching the locality I found all as it
had been represented, and the excitement intense.  Every one was diligently at
work with such tools and appliances as they had improvised, and quite a little
pile had already accumulated.  Though all were at work, there was nothing like
order or method in their plans, and my first efforts were to systematize our
operations, and reduce everything to order.  With this object, an agreement was
entered into to work in common as joint partners, the accumulations of each one
to be placed in a common receptacle, and each be entitled to an equal share,
whenever he chose to withdraw it--the whole to remain under my charge until
some other disposition of it was agreed upon.  Under this arrangement the work
progressed favorably for eighteen months or more, and a great deal of gold had
accumulated in my hands, as well as silver, which had likewise been found.
Everything necessary for our purposes and for the prosecution of the work had
been obtained from Santa Fe, and no trouble was experienced in procuring
assistance from the Indians in our labors.  Matters went on thus until the
summer of 1819, when the question of transferring our wealth to some secure
place was frequently discussed.  It was not considered advisable to retain so
large an amount in so wild and dangerous a locality, where its very possession
might endanger our lives; and to conceal it here would avail nothing, as we
might at any time be forced to reveal its place of concealment. We were in a 
dilemma.  Some advised one plan, some another.  One recommended Santa Fe as the
safest place to deposit it, while others objected, and advocated its shipment
at once to the States, where it was ultimately bound to go, and where alone it
would be safe.  The idea seemed to prevail, and it was doubtless correct, that
when outside parties ascertained, as they would do, that we kept nothing on
hand to tempt their cupidity, our lives would be more secure than at present.
It was finally decided that it should be sent to Virginia under my charge, and
securely buried in a cave near Buford's tavern, in the county of Bedford, which
all of us had visited, and which was considered a perfectly safe depository.
This was acceptable to all, and I at once made preparations for my departure.
The whole party were to accompany me for the first five hundred miles, when all
but ten would return, these latter to remain with me to the end of the journey.
All was carried out as arranged, and I arrived safely with my charge.
     Stopping at Buford's where we remained for a month, under pretense of
hunting, &c., we visited the cave, and found it unfit for our purpose.  It was
too frequently visited by the neighboring farmers, who used it as a receptacle
for their sweet potatoes and other vegetables.  We soon selected a better
place, and to this the treasure was safely transferred.
16-------------------------------------------------------------------------16
     Before leaving my companions on the plains it was suggested that, in case
of an accident to ourselves, the treasure so concealed would be lost to their
relatives, without some provision against such a contingency.  I was,
therefore, instructed to select some perfectly reliable person, if such an one
could be found, who should, in the event of his proving acceptable to the
party, be confided in to carry out their wishes in regard to their respective
shares, and upon my return report whether I had found such a person.  It was in
accordance with these instructions that I visited you, made your acquaintance,
was satisfied that you would suit us, and so reported.
     On my return I found the work still progressing favorably, and, by making
large accessions to our force of laborers, I was ready to return last Fall
with an increased supply of metal, which came through safely and was deposited
with the other. It was at this time I handed you the box, not disclosing the
nature of its contents, but asking you to keep it safely till called for.  I
intend writing you, however, from St. Louis, and impress upon you its
importance still more forcibly.
     The papers enclosed herewith will be unintelligible without the key, which
will reach you in time, and will be found merely to state the contents of our
depository, with its exact location, and a list of the names of our party,
with their places of residence, &c.  I thought, at first, to give you their
names in this letter, but reflecting that some one may read the letter, and
thus be enabled to impose upon you by personating some member of the party,
have decided the present plan is best.  You will be aware from what I have
written, that we are engaged in a perilous enterprise--one which promises
glorious results if successful--but dangers intervene, and of the end no one
can tell.  We can only hope for the best and persevere until our work is
accomplished, and the sum secured for which we are striving.
     As ten years must elapse before you will see this letter, you may well
conclude by that time that the worst has happened, and that none of us are to
be numbered with the living.  In such an event, you will please visit the
place of deposit and secure its contents, which you will divide into
thirty-one equal parts; one of these parts you are to retain as your own,
freely given you for your services.  The other shares to be distributed to the
parties named in the accompanying paper.  These legacies, so unexpectedly
received, will at least serve to recall names that may still be cherished,
though partially forgotten.
     In conclusion, my dear friend, I beg that you will not allow any false or
idle punctillio to prevent your receiving and appropriating the portion
assigned to yourself.  It is a gift not from myself alone, but from each and
every member of our party, and will not be out of proportion to the services
required of you.  
     I trust, my dear Mr. Morriss, that we may meet many times in the future,
but if the Fates forbid, with my last communication I would assure you of the
entire respect and confidence of
Your Friend, T.J.B.
17-------------------------------------------------------------------------17
Lynchburg, Va., January 5th, 1822.
Dear Mr. Morriss.--You will find in one of the papers, written in cipher, the
names of all my associates, who are each entitled to an equal part of our
treasure, and opposite to the names of each one will be found the names and
residences of the relatives and others to whom they devise their respective
portions.  From this you will be enabled to carry out the wishes of all, by
distributing the portion of each to the parties designated.  This will not be
difficult, as their residences are given, and they can easily be found.
     The two letters given above were all the box contained that were
intelligible; the others, consisted of papers closely covered with figures,
which were, of course, unmeaning until they could be deciphered.  To do this
was the task to which I now devoted myself, and with but partial success.
     To enable my readers to understand the paper numbered "2", the
Declaration of Independence is given, by the assistance of which its hidden
meaning was made plain:

           [Declaration of Independence Deleted, pages 17-19]

20-------------------------------------------------------------------------20
     The letter, or paper, so often alluded to, and marked "2", which is fully
explained by the foregoing document, is as follows:

                         [Cipher No. 2 Deleted]

     By comparing the foregoing numbers with the corresponding numbers of the 
initial letters of the consecutive words in the Declaration of Independence,
the translation will be found to be as follows:
     I have deposited, in the county of Bedford, about four miles from
Buford's, an excavation or vault, six feet below the surface of the ground,
the following 
21-------------------------------------------------------------------------21
articles, belonging jointly to the parties whose names are given in number "3",
herewith.
     The first deposit consisted of one thousand and fourteen pounds of gold,
and three thousand eight hundred and twelve pounds of silver, deposited 
November, 1819.  The second was made December, 1821, and consisted of nineteen
hundred and seven pounds of gold, and twelve hundred and eighty-eight pounds of
silver; also jewels, obtained in St. Louis in exchange for silver to save
transportation, and valued at $13,000.
     The above is securely packed in iron pots, with iron covers.  The vault is
roughly lined with stone, and the vessels rest on solid stone, and are covered
with others.  Paper number "1" describes the exact locality of the vault, so
that no difficulty will be had in finding it.
     The following is the paper which, according to Beale's statement,
describes the exact locality of the vault, and is marked "1".  It is to this
that I have devoted most of my time, but unfortunately, without success:

                         [Cipher No. 1 Deleted]

     The following paper is marked "3" in the series, and as we are informed,
contains the names of Beale's associates, who are
22-------------------------------------------------------------------------22
joint owners of the fund deposited, together with the names of the nearest
relatives of each party, with their several places of residence.

                         [Cipher No. 3 Deleted]

     The papers given above were all that were contained in the box, except two
or three of an unimportant character, and having no connection whatever with
the subject in hand.  They were carefully copied, and as carefully compared
with the originals, and no error is believed to exist.
     Complete in themselves, they are respectfully submitted to the public,
with the hope that all that is dark in them may receive light, and that the
treasure, amounting to more than three-quarters of a million, which has rested
so long unproductive of good, in the hands of a proper person, may eventually
accomplish its mission.
     In conclusion it may not be inappropriate to say a few words regarding
myself:  In consequence of the time lost in the above  
23-------------------------------------------------------------------------23
investigation, I have been reduced from comparative affluence to absolute
penury, entailing suffering upon those it was my duty to protect, and this too,
in spite of their remonstrances.  My eyes were at last opened to their
condition, and I resolved to sever at once, and forever, all connection with
the affair, and retrieve, if possible, my errors.  To do this, as the best
means of placing temptation beyond my reach, I determined to make public the
whole matter, and shift from my shoulders my responsibility to Mr. Morriss.
     I anticipate for these papers a large circulation, and, to avoid the
multitude of letters with which I should be assailed from all sections of the
Union, propounding all sorts of questions, and requiring answers which, if
attended to, would absorb my entire time, and only change the character of my
work, I have decided upon withdrawing my name from the publication, after
assuring all interested that I have given all that I know of the matter, and
that I cannot add one word to the statements herein contained.
     The gentleman whom I have selected as my agent, to publish and circulate
these papers, was well-known to Mr. Morriss; it was at his house that Mrs.
Morriss died, and he would have been one of the beneficiaries in the event of
my success.  Like every one else, he was ignorant of this episode in Mr.
Morriss' career, until the manuscript was placed in his hands.  Trusting that
he will be benefited by the arrangement, which, I know, would have met the
approval of Mr. Morriss, I have left the whole subject to his sole management
and charge.  All business communications should be addressed to him.  It is
needless to say that I shall await with much anxiety the development of the
mystery. 
##############################################################################
                            END OF TEXT FILE
##############################################################################

"PAMPHLET.DOC"


 

Notes on the Beale Ciphers


Notes on the Beale Ciphers

The first 121 words of the Key for B1 would decipher 1/2  of  the
        message.   This  would  include  a  maximum stretch of 10
        clear text letters in a row.  

Using the DOI as a key for B1 gives mostly  garbage,  except  for
        the  curious  ocurrance  of  part  of the alphabet in the
	early part of the paper:


seq#   188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204
code#  147 436 194 320  37 122 113   6 140   8 120 305  42  58 461  44 106
	a   b   c   d   e   f   g   h   i   i   j   k   l   m   m   n   o

	What are the odds that this is chance?

Other sequences of the first letters of the alphabet appear when using
the corrections described by Aaron and Matyas: "How the Message in
Paper No. 2 was Recovered"

150  251  284  308  231  124  211  486  225  401
a    a    a    b    b    c    d    e    f    f

25   485  18   436  65   84   200  283  118  320  138
a    b    b    b    c    c    c    c    d    d    e

24   283  134  92   63   246  486
a    c    b    c    d    d    e

147 436 195 320 37  122 113 6   140 8  120 305 42  58  461 44  106 301 13  408
a   b   c   d   e   f   g   h   i   i  j   k   l   m   m   n   o   h   p   p

Note that the largest number in any of the 4 sequences is 486.

        Reworked my copy of B2 to match  the  Ward  pamphlet.   I
        included  corrections for what are almost surely printing
        errors, and left in the  counting  errors  introduced  by
        Beale.   Also  tried  generating  a  version  of  the DOI
        numbered the way Beale might have done it by  hand.   The
        assumed method is to number only every tenth (or possibly 
        every  fifth) word of the document.  The numbering errors
        can most easily be explained if the ORIGINAL  VERSION  of
        the  DOI is used.  The original is written with very long
        lines that might cause the type of counting  errors  seen
        in B2.  Most of the numbering shifts can be attributed to 
        Beale  miscounting  when  going from the end of a line to
        the beginning of the next.  My corrections are: 

        1) Between `new' and `government' insert  a  filler  word
		`X'.  The X would be encoded as 156, but is never
                used (in any of the 3 papers).  Since Beale would 
                count  from the nearest `10-mark' when converting
                a letter to its position, he would  probably  not
                see  his  error  once  the document was numbered.
                This is the only error that requires inserting  a
                word into the document.  All others are caused by 
                dropping a word (or merging them to show how they 
                were derived).  

                Note that Ward just added the word  `a'  at  this
                point (a new government).  

        2) Merge the words `object'  and  `evinces'.   Thus  code
                word 244 could be read as `o' or `e' in B3.  This 
                error  is  also unlikely to be seen by Beale once
                made.  Merging really means dropping one  of  the
                two  words merged.  The program that reads such a
                merged pair will use  the  first  letter  of  the
                string.  

        3) Number 480=people, then number 480=dissolutions.  This 
                error  is  similar  to  the  others,  except  the
                `10-marks'  are  miscounted  instead  of just the
                distance between them.   Again,  the  mistake  is
                across  a  line boundary.  For counting purposes,
                the safest thing to do seems to be  to  drop  the
                sequence:  `He  has refused for a long time after
                such dissolutions'  (Just  as  Ward  did).   Code
                words  475-484  aren't  used anywhere.  Note also
		that none of the Gillogly Strings contain numbers
                higher  than  486.  The break at this point could
                be related to these strings.  Unfortunately,  the
                numbers 485 and 486 occur AFTER the break.....  

        4) `meantime' should be counted  as  2  words.   This  is
                clear   from   inspecting   the  DOI.   mean=509,
                time=510.  In this case, most  modern  texts  are
                wrong,  and  Beale  counted correctly.  Or: count
                `remaining' as two words  since  it's  hyphenated
                across a line break.  

        5) Merge `among' and `us' as word 627.  From  this  point
                on,  the  adjustments  have  little justification
                other than that they are made in the same  manner
		as  the  previous  ones.

        6) Merge `boundaries' and `so' as word 778.  There are  4
                places  that this error could have been made.  It
                only affects a few code words.  This corrects the 
                counting errors through  code  element  #811  and
                leaves only the `x' needing adjustment.  

        There are 4 words remaining in the DOI  that  contain  an
        `x': executioners, excited, sexes, and extend.  Which (if 
        any) of these did Beale use as element 1005?   I  suggest
        an   alternative  to  `sexes'  as  is  commonly  assumed:
        `Executioners' is the sixth word of a line and this  could  be
        element  #1005  if the numbering was restarted at 1000 at
	the beginning of this line.  Actually, this is pretty weak
	reasoning.  I just haven't seen a good of explanation as
	to why 1005=X in B2.

        Just recieved material ordered from the BCA: Ward's  1885
        pamphlet,  Hart's  version  and  the  '81 proceedings.  I
        found a few irritating differences between what I thought 
        were correct versions of the 3  ciphers  and  the  values
        published  in  Ward's paper.  In particular in B1 I found
        the following differences: 

		Position	Hart,etc.	Ward
		 260		 320		 324
		 405		  90		 290
		 462		 858		 868
		 516		 820		 826

	In B3 the following differences exist:

		 401		  11		   1
		 554		  29		  28

        Where did these errors come from?   Since  the  cleartext
	for  B2  is known, the errors there are understandable as
        either typesetting errors or mis-counts by the author  of
        the ciphers.  

Extending the `Gillogly strings':
        Another string emerges and the longest string is extended 
        if a count of 5 is added  to  elements  above  604.   The
        string: 

		604 230 436 664 582

        is `aabad' without the correction, and `aabcd'  with  it.
        Even more interesting is the cipher element #208  at  the
        end  of  the string: `abcdefghiijklmmnohpp'.  The element
        is 680, and is deciphered as `a' without  adding  5,  but
        becomes  `q'  by  adding  5.  Note that there is only one
        word in the entire DOI that  begins  with  `q'.   Against
        this  argument  is  the  clear(!)  requirement  that  the
        counting not be shifted by 5 for decoding B2.  

        Hammer's 1971 CACM article also notes significant  biases
        for multiples of 5 in B3.  

        Also, the second `h' in  the  string  is  represented  by
        301.  The 302nd word in my version of the DOI is `of'.  

Explanation for the Gillogly strings:
	Assume the method for encoding B1 and B2 went something like this:

        A partial list of numbers  is  prepared  by  writing  the
        alphabet  down  the left side of a piece of paper.  Words
        beginning with this  letter  are  then  noted  and  their
        position  in  the DOI is written on the appropriate line.
        This process continues until most of  the  lines  contain
        enough letters for the expected task.  B2 is then encoded 
        using  this  list;  with reference back to the DOI when a
        needed letter isn't in the prepared list, or the  encoder
        thinks a number has been used too often.  New numbers may 
        be added to the list during this process.  

        In order to encode  B1,  the  preparer  then  writes  the
        alphabet  ACROSS  THE  TOP of his prepared list of cipher
        elements  and  proceeds  as  before;  this  time  picking
        numbers  from  the  columns  instead  of rows.  Thus when
        encoding a particular word, it would be natural to  stick
        to  the top of the columns and work down while encoding a
	word.  Note that some of the Gillogly strings use numbers
        that  do  not  appear  in B2 and that this list must have
        been made up before  either  of  the  two  messages  were
        encoded.  

        If this scenario is correct, then the appearance of (say) 
        four C's  in  a  row  probably  indicate  four  different
        letters in the cleartext of B1.  

        Problems with this explanation: Some  rows  of  the  list
        would  have  only a few numbers in them and thus would be
        unlikely to appear in B1(doi).  This is  contradicted  by
        the  string:  `ijkl'.   There are only 6 words that start
        with `j' and only 2 that start with `k' in the first  811
        words  of the DOI.  Some rows of the list would also have
        many more than 26 numbers and thus  shouldn't  appear  at
        all in B1.  Finally, the BCA newsletter (June 82) article 
        by  Aaron  mentions that the key to B1 was in a format of
	25 letters per line,  basing this observation on the bias
        of numbers toward the center of a  key  list.   (3/30/83:
        This  tendency is very weak; my modulo program shows only
        one significant peak in a chart as described by Aaron) 

        From the recent discussion  in  the  BCA  newsletter,  it
        seems that Ward really was the agent for the author.

        Modulo tests.  Wrote a program to display the  remainders
        after  division  of  the  cipher  elements.  For example,
        there is a definite preference for multiples of 5 in  all
        3 ciphers: 

	B1 % 5, mean: 86.20, sigma:  8.30
	B1 %5 = 0: 78                            5
	B1 %5 = 1:125                                            5++++
	B1 %5 = 2: 59                     5---
	B1 %5 = 3: 80                            5
	B1 %5 = 4: 89                               5

	B2 % 5, mean:138.00, sigma: 10.51
	B2 %5 = 0:187                                         5++++
	B2 %5 = 1:134                              5
	B2 %5 = 2:145                                5
	B2 %5 = 3:140                               5
	B2 %5 = 4: 84                   5-----

	B3 % 5, mean:117.80, sigma:  9.71
	B3 %5 = 0: 81                     5----
	B3 %5 = 1:152                                       5+++
	B3 %5 = 2:111                             5
	B3 %5 = 3:121                               5
	B3 %5 = 4:124                                5

        For each message, the expected number of remainders for a 
        completely random distribution  is  printed  (the  mean),
        followed  by  the  number  of counts corresponding to one
        standard deviation away  from  the  mean  (sigma).   Each
        subsequent line shows the remainder being calculated, the 
        number  of  cipher  elements  with  this remainder, and a
        graphical representation of the deviation.  +'s  and  -'s
        after  the charted number indicate the number of standard
        deviations away from the mean that the count  represents.
        Sigmas of +/- 3 seem to be significant.  

        B2 prefers numbers evenly divisible by 5, while B3 avoids 
        them.  The pattern for all  3  ciphers  is  similar;  One
        remainder  is  preferred,  one avoided, and the remaining
        ones about random.  

        It's  not  surprising  to  find  a  particular  remainder
        preferred  over  others,  but  the  pattern for the Beale
        ciphers is peculiar.  The excess use of a  particular  is
        not  balanced  by  a  general  avoidance  of  the other 4
        remainders.  Instead a single  other  remainder  accounts
        for the excess of another.  What could cause this?  

        The pattern for B2%10 also shows  significant  deviations
        from random: 

	B2 % 10, mean: 69.00, sigma:  7.88
	B2 %10= 0:116                                                 10++++++
	B2 %10= 1: 60                           10-
	B2 %10= 2: 69                              10
	B2 %10= 3: 70                               10
	B2 %10= 4: 55                        10-
	B2 %10= 5: 71                               10
	B2 %10= 6: 74                                 10
	B2 %10= 7: 76                                  10
	B2 %10= 8: 70                               10
	B2 %10= 9: 29             10-----

	B3 % 10, mean: 58.90, sigma:  7.28
	B3 %10= 0: 30                10----
	B3 %10= 6: 87                                             10+++

        Again B2 prefers numbers  evenly  divisible  by  10,  and
        avoids  numbers  with  remainders of 9.  B3 avoids evenly
        divisible numbers, and concentrates on  remainders  of  6
        (which  is  related  to  remainders of 1 when dividing by
        5).  

Conclusions/Observations:
	1) The original DOI was the key for B2; numbering errors
		all ocurr at line break boundaries of the original DOI.
	2) A side table arranged alphabetically was prepared before
		B1 or B2 were encoded.  The Gillogly strings contain
		elements that do not appear in B2.
	3) All 3 ciphers show a bias for multiples of 5.
	4) A shift of 5 for elements >600 will create/extend
		the Gillogly strings in B1.
	5) X=1005 in B2, but no word near 1005 contains an X.
	6) The Ward pamphlet contains the words 'for silver' as the
		cleartext for B2, but the cipher contains no such
		set of numbers.
	7) J.B.Ward was not the author of "The Beale Papers". 

"NOTES.HTM"

Anmerkung: Es ist vollkommen logisch, daß bei den Zahlen Vielfache von "5" vorkommen. Dies liegt mit größter Wahrscheinlichkeit an der Angewohnheit der meisten Menschen, beim Zählen Striche zu machen bei markanten Punkten. Anstatt eines Striches kann man auch die jeweilige Ordnungszahl dazuschreiben, zum Beispiel 55, 60, 65, 70 und so weiter. Später, beim Umsetzen, ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit groß, eines der markierten Dinge zu benutzen, denn es ist einfacher und bequemer.

Wenn man es genau nimmt, steigt die Wahrscheinlichkeit, daß die Papiere echt sind, durch die Häufung der Zählmarken!

TINA


 

Notes on the Beale Ciphers

Solution for /cryptology/Beale problem

Solution to the /cryptology/Beale problem

The Beale ciphers are one of the greatest unsolved puzzles of all time. About 100 years ago, a fellow by the name of Beale supposedly buried two wagons-full of silver-coin filled pots in Bedford County, near Roanoke. There are local rumors about the treasure being buried near Bedford Lake.

He wrote three encoded letters telling what was buried, where it was buried, and who it belonged to. He entrusted these three letters to a friend and went west. He was never heard from again.

Several years later, someone examined the letters and was able to break the code used in the second letter. The code used the text from the Declaration of Independence. A number in the letter indicated which word in the document was to be used. The first letter of that word replaced the number. For example, if the first three words of the document were "We hold these truths", the number 3 in the letter would represent the letter t.

One of the remaining letters supposedly contains directions on how to find the treasure. To date, no one has solved the code. It is believed that both of the remaining letters are encoded using either the same document in a different way, or another very public document.

For those interested, write to:

	The Beale Cypher Association
	P.O. Box 975
	Beaver Falls, PA 15010

Item #904 is the 1885 pamphlet version ($5.00). #152 is the Cryptologia article by Gillogly that argues the hoax side ($2.00). A year's membership is $25, and includes 4 newsletters.

TEXT for part 1

The Locality of the Vault.

71,194,38,1701,89,76,11,83,1629,48,94,63,132,16,111,95,84,341 975,14,40,64,27,81,139,213,63,90,1120,8,15,3,126,2018,40,74 758,485,604,230,436,664,582,150,251,284,308,231,124,211,486,225 401,370,11,101,305,139,189,17,33,88,208,193,145,1,94,73,416 918,263,28,500,538,356,117,136,219,27,176,130,10,460,25,485,18 436,65,84,200,283,118,320,138,36,416,280,15,71,224,961,44,16,401 39,88,61,304,12,21,24,283,134,92,63,246,486,682,7,219,184,360,780 18,64,463,474,131,160,79,73,440,95,18,64,581,34,69,128,367,460,17 81,12,103,820,62,110,97,103,862,70,60,1317,471,540,208,121,890 346,36,150,59,568,614,13,120,63,219,812,2160,1780,99,35,18,21,136 872,15,28,170,88,4,30,44,112,18,147,436,195,320,37,122,113,6,140 8,120,305,42,58,461,44,106,301,13,408,680,93,86,116,530,82,568,9 102,38,416,89,71,216,728,965,818,2,38,121,195,14,326,148,234,18 55,131,234,361,824,5,81,623,48,961,19,26,33,10,1101,365,92,88,181 275,346,201,206,86,36,219,324,829,840,64,326,19,48,122,85,216,284 919,861,326,985,233,64,68,232,431,960,50,29,81,216,321,603,14,612 81,360,36,51,62,194,78,60,200,314,676,112,4,28,18,61,136,247,819 921,1060,464,895,10,6,66,119,38,41,49,602,423,962,302,294,875,78 14,23,111,109,62,31,501,823,216,280,34,24,150,1000,162,286,19,21 17,340,19,242,31,86,234,140,607,115,33,191,67,104,86,52,88,16,80 121,67,95,122,216,548,96,11,201,77,364,218,65,667,890,236,154,211 10,98,34,119,56,216,119,71,218,1164,1496,1817,51,39,210,36,3,19 540,232,22,141,617,84,290,80,46,207,411,150,29,38,46,172,85,194 39,261,543,897,624,18,212,416,127,931,19,4,63,96,12,101,418,16,140 230,460,538,19,27,88,612,1431,90,716,275,74,83,11,426,89,72,84 1300,1706,814,221,132,40,102,34,868,975,1101,84,16,79,23,16,81,122 324,403,912,227,936,447,55,86,34,43,212,107,96,314,264,1065,323 428,601,203,124,95,216,814,2906,654,820,2,301,112,176,213,71,87,96 202,35,10,2,41,17,84,221,736,820,214,11,60,760

TEXT for part 2

(no title exists for this part)

115,73,24,807,37,52,49,17,31,62,647,22,7,15,140,47,29,107,79,84 56,239,10,26,811,5,196,308,85,52,160,136,59,211,36,9,46,316,554 122,106,95,53,58,2,42,7,35,122,53,31,82,77,250,196,56,96,118,71 140,287,28,353,37,1005,65,147,807,24,3,8,12,47,43,59,807,45,316 101,41,78,154,1005,122,138,191,16,77,49,102,57,72,34,73,85,35,371 59,196,81,92,191,106,273,60,394,620,270,220,106,388,287,63,3,6 191,122,43,234,400,106,290,314,47,48,81,96,26,115,92,158,191,110 77,85,197,46,10,113,140,353,48,120,106,2,607,61,420,811,29,125,14 20,37,105,28,248,16,159,7,35,19,301,125,110,486,287,98,117,511,62 51,220,37,113,140,807,138,540,8,44,287,388,117,18,79,344,34,20,59 511,548,107,603,220,7,66,154,41,20,50,6,575,122,154,248,110,61,52,33 30,5,38,8,14,84,57,540,217,115,71,29,84,63,43,131,29,138,47,73,239 540,52,53,79,118,51,44,63,196,12,239,112,3,49,79,353,105,56,371,557 211,505,125,360,133,143,101,15,284,540,252,14,205,140,344,26,811,138 115,48,73,34,205,316,607,63,220,7,52,150,44,52,16,40,37,158,807,37 121,12,95,10,15,35,12,131,62,115,102,807,49,53,135,138,30,31,62,67,41 85,63,10,106,807,138,8,113,20,32,33,37,353,287,140,47,85,50,37,49,47 64,6,7,71,33,4,43,47,63,1,27,600,208,230,15,191,246,85,94,511,2,270 20,39,7,33,44,22,40,7,10,3,811,106,44,486,230,353,211,200,31,10,38 140,297,61,603,320,302,666,287,2,44,33,32,511,548,10,6,250,557,246 53,37,52,83,47,320,38,33,807,7,44,30,31,250,10,15,35,106,160,113,31 102,406,230,540,320,29,66,33,101,807,138,301,316,353,320,220,37,52 28,540,320,33,8,48,107,50,811,7,2,113,73,16,125,11,110,67,102,807,33 59,81,158,38,43,581,138,19,85,400,38,43,77,14,27,8,47,138,63,140,44 35,22,177,106,250,314,217,2,10,7,1005,4,20,25,44,48,7,26,46,110,230 807,191,34,112,147,44,110,121,125,96,41,51,50,140,56,47,152,540 63,807,28,42,250,138,582,98,643,32,107,140,112,26,85,138,540,53,20 125,371,38,36,10,52,118,136,102,420,150,112,71,14,20,7,24,18,12,807 37,67,110,62,33,21,95,220,511,102,811,30,83,84,305,620,15,2,108,220 106,353,105,106,60,275,72,8,50,205,185,112,125,540,65,106,807,188,96,110 16,73,32,807,150,409,400,50,154,285,96,106,316,270,205,101,811,400,8 44,37,52,40,241,34,205,38,16,46,47,85,24,44,15,64,73,138,807,85,78,110 33,420,505,53,37,38,22,31,10,110,106,101,140,15,38,3,5,44,7,98,287 135,150,96,33,84,125,807,191,96,511,118,440,370,643,466,106,41,107 603,220,275,30,150,105,49,53,287,250,208,134,7,53,12,47,85,63,138,110 21,112,140,485,486,505,14,73,84,575,1005,150,200,16,42,5,4,25,42 8,16,811,125,160,32,205,603,807,81,96,405,41,600,136,14,20,28,26 353,302,246,8,131,160,140,84,440,42,16,811,40,67,101,102,194,138 205,51,63,241,540,122,8,10,63,140,47,48,140,288

CLEAR for part 2, made human readable.

I have deposited in the county of Bedford about four miles from Bufords in an excavation or vault six feet below the surface of the ground the following articles belonging jointly to the parties whose names are given in number three herewith. The first deposit consisted of ten hundred and fourteen pounds of gold and thirty eight hundred and twelve pounds of silver deposited Nov eighteen nineteen. The second was made Dec eighteen twenty one and consisted of nineteen hundred and seven pounds of gold and twelve hundred and eighty eight of silver, also jewels obtained in St. Louis in exchange to save transportation and valued at thirteen [t]housand dollars. The above is securely packed i[n] [i]ron pots with iron cov[e]rs. Th[e] vault is roughly lined with stone and the vessels rest on solid stone and are covered [w]ith others. Paper number one describes th[e] exact locality of the va[u]lt so that no difficulty will be had in finding it.

CLEAR for part 2, using only the first 480 words of the Declaration of Independence, then blanks filled in by inspection. ALL mistakes shown were caused by sloppy encryption.

    0----5----10---15---20---25---30---35---40---45---
  0 ihavedepositedinthecountyofbedfordaboutfourmilesfr
 50 ombufordsinanexcavationorvaultsixfeetbelowthesurfa
100 ceofthegroundthefollowingarticlesbelongingjointlyt
150 othepartieswhosenamesaregiveninnumberthreeherewith
200 thefirstdepositconsistcdoftenhundredandfourteenpou
250 ndsofgoldandthirtyeighthundredandtwelvepoundsofsil
300 verdepositednoveighteennineteenthesecondwasmadedec
350 eighteentwentyoneandconsistedofnineteenhundredands
400 evenpoundsofgoldandtwelvehundredandeightyeightofsi
450 lveralsojewelsobtainedinstlouisinexchangetosavetra
500 nsportationandvaluedatthirteenrhousanddollarstheab
550 oveissecurelypackeditronpotswithironcovtrsthtvault
600 isroughlylinedwithstoneandthevesselsrestonsolidsto
650 neandarecovereduithotherspapernumberonedescribesth
700 cexactlocalityofthevarltsothatnodifficultywillbeha
750 dinfindingit

TEXT for part 3 : Names and Residences.

317,8,92,73,112,89,67,318,28,96,107,41,631,78,146,397,118,98 114,246,348,116,74,88,12,65,32,14,81,19,76,121,216,85,33,66,15 108,68,77,43,24,122,96,117,36,211,301,15,44,11,46,89,18,136,68 317,28,90,82,304,71,43,221,198,176,310,319,81,99,264,380,56,37 319,2,44,53,28,44,75,98,102,37,85,107,117,64,88,136,48,154,99,175 89,315,326,78,96,214,218,311,43,89,51,90,75,128,96,33,28,103,84 65,26,41,246,84,270,98,116,32,59,74,66,69,240,15,8,121,20,77,80 31,11,106,81,191,224,328,18,75,52,82,117,201,39,23,217,27,21,84 35,54,109,128,49,77,88,1,81,217,64,55,83,116,251,269,311,96,54,32 120,18,132,102,219,211,84,150,219,275,312,64,10,106,87,75,47,21 29,37,81,44,18,126,115,132,160,181,203,76,81,299,314,337,351,96,11 28,97,318,238,106,24,93,3,19,17,26,60,73,88,14,126,138,234,286 297,321,365,264,19,22,84,56,107,98,123,111,214,136,7,33,45,40,13 28,46,42,107,196,227,344,198,203,247,116,19,8,212,230,31,6,328 65,48,52,59,41,122,33,117,11,18,25,71,36,45,83,76,89,92,31,65,70 83,96,27,33,44,50,61,24,112,136,149,176,180,194,143,171,205,296 87,12,44,51,89,98,34,41,208,173,66,9,35,16,95,8,113,175,90,56 203,19,177,183,206,157,200,218,260,291,305,618,951,320,18,124,78 65,19,32,124,48,53,57,84,96,207,244,66,82,119,71,11,86,77,213,54 82,316,245,303,86,97,106,212,18,37,15,81,89,16,7,81,39,96,14,43 216,118,29,55,109,136,172,213,64,8,227,304,611,221,364,819,375 128,296,1,18,53,76,10,15,23,19,71,84,120,134,66,73,89,96,230,48 77,26,101,127,936,218,439,178,171,61,226,313,215,102,18,167,262 114,218,66,59,48,27,19,13,82,48,162,119,34,127,139,34,128,129,74 63,120,11,54,61,73,92,180,66,75,101,124,265,89,96,126,274,896,917 434,461,235,890,312,413,328,381,96,105,217,66,118,22,77,64,42,12 7,55,24,83,67,97,109,121,135,181,203,219,228,256,21,34,77,319,374 382,675,684,717,864,203,4,18,92,16,63,82,22,46,55,69,74,112,134 186,175,119,213,416,312,343,264,119,186,218,343,417,845,951,124 209,49,617,856,924,936,72,19,28,11,35,42,40,66,85,94,112,65,82 115,119,233,244,186,172,112,85,6,56,38,44,85,72,32,47,63,96,124 217,314,319,221,644,817,821,934,922,416,975,10,22,18,46,137,181 101,39,86,103,116,138,164,212,218,296,815,380,412,460,495,675,820 952

Evidence in favor of a hoax-

References:
   "The Beale Treasure: A History of a Mystery", by Peter Viemeister,
       Bedord, VA: Hamilton's, 1987.  ISBN: 0-9608598-3-7.  230 pages.
   

"The Codebreakers", by David Kahn, pg 771, CCN 63-16109. 1967.

"Gold in the Blue Ridge, The True Story of the Beale Treasure", by P.B. Innis & Walter Dean Innis, Devon Publ. Co., Wash, D.C. 1973.

"Signature Simulation and Certain Cryptographic Codes", Hammer, Communications of the ACM, 14 (1), January 1971, pp. 3-14. "How did TJB Encode B2?", Hammer, Cryptologia, 3 (1), Jan. 1979, pp. 9-15.

"Second Order Homophonic Ciphers", Hammer, Cryptologia, 12 (1) Jan. 1988, pp 11-20.

EMail an den Autor: arlet@dutecai.et.tudelft.nl


 

Aus der Web-Site von Roanoke entnommen:

~A~L~M~A~N~A~C~

The Beale legend continues
to intrigue treasure hunters

When you ask the man regarded by many as the foremost authority on the Beale Treasure whether the legend is true, he replies, "Maybe."

Peter Viemeister, author of "The Beale Treasure: A History of a Mystery," thinks there is evidence to support the Bedford legend, but, like anyone, can't be certain until the loot is found.

For more than a century, any number of people have grabbed a pick and a shovel and headed out in search of the stash they think Thomas J. Beale hid in 1819 and 1821. Believers claim the treasure consists of gold, silver and jewels worth about $20 million.

Here is a brief description, based on Viemeister's book and "The Beale Papers," of how the legend developed:

In 1820, Beale met Robert Morriss, a man he came to trust after sharing close quarters with him for several months. In March 1821, Beale left to go on a trip and Morriss heard nothing from him until January 1822, when Beale wrote him.

In the letter, Beale told his friend of an excursion that started in April 1817. Beale traveled to St. Louis, he said, where he and a group of associates hired a guide to take them to Santa Fe, primarily to hunt.

The group left St. Louis May 19 and arrived in Santa Fe about the first of December. Early in the spring, after a winter with little to do, a small hunting party left the camp site and didn't return for several weeks.

Finally, messengers were sent back to the campsite to inform Beale they had discovered a cache of gold some 250-300 miles north of Santa Fe. Beale said in the letter that he traveled to the spot where the gold was found and established an organized method of mining the precious metal.

The group worked the site for about 18 months, according to the papers, and then in 1819 transported back to Bedford County 1,104 pounds of gold and 3,812 pounds of silver, which was later discovered at the same site north of Santa Fe.

In December 1821, the group transported back another load - 1,907 pounds of gold, 3,812 pounds of silver and $13,000 worth of jewels purchased in St. Louis.

Beale supposedly gave Morriss a locked iron box containing "papers of value and importance" during the second trip to Bedford County. He asked his friend to keep the box safe for him.

However, Beale didn't stay in Bedford long, leaving again that spring.

In May 1822, Morriss is said to have received another letter from Beale, who was apparently in St. Louis. In the letter, Beale asked his friend to continue watching the box, but added Morriss should open it in June 1832 - 10 years later - if Beale didn't return. Inside the box, Beale's letter said, were two letters addressed to Morriss and several sheets of paper.

The papers contained a series of numbers that Morriss wouldn't be able to understand, Beale wrote. Without a "key," being held by another friend in St. Louis, the papers would be worthless. The key would be sent to Morriss in the event Beale died, the letter stated.

The key, according to Beale's letter, would allow Morriss to decipher the numerical codes and would, among other things, lead him to the treasure.

According to legend, Beale never did return. The papers speculate he was killed by Indians, but don't state so emphatically.

The papers also claim Morriss didn't open the iron box until 1845, some 13 years after the date he was supposed to. Morriss "first intimated" he had the answer to a secret in 1862, the papers indicate. He is said to have died the next year.

"The Beale Papers" were published in Lynchburg in 1885, apparently by James B. Ward. To this day, some speculate the papers are a hoax devised by Ward, that none of the information from the papers can be accepted as truth. Others believe the papers are genuine, and they search for Beale's treasure near what is now Moneta.

In 1967, David Kahn wrote a book entitled "The Code Breakers," in which he disputed the validity of the story. In 1974, A.B. Chandler, an amateur cryptologist, claimed to have deciphered the numerical code and that one section of the papers read: "end of my joke."

Stan Czarnowski, a steelworker from Pennsylvania, said he found Beale's vault under the floor of an ice house near Moneta during the early 1970s, but that the treasure was already gone.

In January 1983, Joseph Jancik and Marilyn Parson, also from Pennsylvania, came to Bedford County in search of the fortune. They went to the Mountain View Church cemetery on Wiggington Knob with a backhoe and began digging.

Neighbors who heard the noise called the sheriff's department. Before the two were taken to jail, all they had unearthed was part of a coffin and what appeared to be a human bone. Parsons was fined $500 for the escapade; Jancik was ordered to pay a $100 fine.

Some of the seekers have been publicity hounds, like Mel Fisher, a treasure hunter who came to Bedford County in 1989 claiming the loot would be his by the end of the century. Fisher, who in 1985 found a sunken Spanish galleon off the Florida coast _ and about $100 million worth of goods along with it _ stayed for a couple of weeks before leaving empty-handed, according to Viemeister.

So far, he hasn't returned. Other hopefuls have gone about their business more quietly, Viemeister says, leaving property owners to walk out into their back yards on random mornings to discover holes that weren't there the day before.

And it is this type of treasure hunter, Viemeister said, that is most likely to find the fortune - if it exists.

"The person who really solves it right isn't going to make any noise until he's pulling it out of the ground," he said.

"ALMANAC.HTM"


zurück zu TINAs Gold-Page
zurück zur Homepage



Copyright © 1997
TINA
and
Copyright © 1997
Antares Real-Estate