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Verletzungen der Halswirbelsäule

Tremor

19.2.2003

31.1.2003 Tremor (Zittern) ist ein weit verbreitetes Symptom. Leider weigern sich Orthopäden, dessen Existenz zu akzeptieren, und Neurologen, es zu untersuchen.

Die ach so häufige "Diagnose" "essentieller Tremor" kann man daher in vielen Fällen übersetzen mit "ich weiß es nicht und ich bin zu faul, mich um eine Diagnose zu kümmern".


Dank der amerikanischen medizinischen Datenbanken gibt es einige (leider viel zu wenige) Hinweise auf Forschungsergebnisse zu Tremor.

Aus den im Anhang aufgeführten abstracts (am 22.1.2003 der Datenbank entnommen) lassen sich in Korrelation mit Patientenberichten folgende Thesen bzw Fakten zusammenfassen:

  1. Durch Kompression des Spinalstrangs kann Tremor entstehen.

  2. Durch Änderung des Drucks auf den Spinalstrang läßt sich die Frequenz des Tremors ändern.

  3. Durch Belastung läßt sich die Frequenz des Tremors ändern.

  4. Es gibt einen Rückkopplungseffekt, der Oszillationen (dh Tremor) verursacht.

  5. Je nach Rückkoplungsschleife ist die Frequenz und vermutlich auch die Impulsform des Tremors anders.

  6. Beeinträchtigung des Spinalstrangs in der Brustwirbelsäule kann auslösen:

  7. Zittern und Zwangshaltungen haben eine Beeinträchtigung der Atmungsfunktionmen und eine Schädigung der Lunge zur Folge.

    Im Zitat #12 wird dies für Parkinson beschrieben, aber die wesentlichen Faktoren sind bei Parkinson und bei Störungen der Brustwirbelsäule die gleichen.

  8. Die Frequenzen können, wie Zitat #17 zeigt, sehr viel höher sein (bis 50 Hz) als die allgemein bekannten unter 10 Hz.

  9. Durch die Überlagerung mehrerer Beeinträchtigungen des Spinalstrangs kann es mehrere Tremore simultan geben. Insbesondere kann durch einen Tremor ein zweiter ausgelöst werden (zB wenn der erste einen Druck auf den Spinalstrang verursacht oder Gewebe direkt oder indirekt beeinträchtigt (zB durch Durchblutungsstörungen durch Druck auf Blutgefäße)).

  10. Nicht immer führt eine (Zer)störung der Nervenstränge zu einem Zittern. Wie Zitat #18 zeigt, kann es durch Schäden in der Halswirbelsäule auch geben: ("...appeared at the advanced stage of his illness. There was no tremor or other involuntary movements.")

  11. Eine Gewebeveränderung durch ein kurzfristiges Trauma kann einen bleibenden Tremor verursachen.

    Der Fall aus Zitat #18 zeigt dies an. Es ist aber auch durch die anderen Beobachtungen erklärbar und logisch herzuleiten, daß eine Änderung der Rückkopplungsschleife einen Tremor zur Folge haben kann. Ist - zum Beispiel bei einem Schleudertrauma - die mechanische Ursache wieder verschwunden, kann die bleibende Gewebeänderung Ursache eines Tremors sein. Diese Gewebeänderung ist mit den derzeitigen Röntgen- bzw MRT-Methoden NICHT sichtbar.


Eine PRÄZISE Analyse eines Tremors und des Spannungszustands des Körpers ist dringend notwendig. Die meßtechnischen Voraussetzungen dafür gibt es in hervorragender Qualität schon seit mehr als 20 Jahren.

Wieviele Generationen werden wir noch warten müssen, bis diese Diagnosemethoden, die in der Industrie selbst in einfachen Maschinen schon lange tagtäglich im Normalbetrieb im Einsatz sind ("Schwingungsanalyse", "permanente Wartung"), auch in der Medizin eingesetzt werden?

Sind Industriemaschinen wertvoller als Menschenleben?

Aribert Deckers


Journal Citations

1

Peripheral mechanisms in tremor after traumatic neck injury.
Full Author Name: Hashimoto, T; Sato, H; Shindo, M; Hayashi, R; Ikeda, S.

Hashimoto T, Sato H, Shindo M, Hayashi R, Ikeda S.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;73(5):585-7.
[Article in English]

Third Department of Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.
takahhh@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp
Tremor is a rare manifestation after neck injury, and its physiological mechanism has not been elucidated. We studied the effects of torque loading and ischaemic nerve block on coarse postural tremor in the right upper extremity, which had developed in association with a C7-C8 radiculopathy after traumatic neck injury in a 55 year old man. Loading reduced the tremor frequency from 6.1 Hz to 4.2 Hz with corresponding electromyography (EMG) bursts at the same frequencies as the tremor. Ischaemic nerve block also reduced the tremor frequency from 6.2 Hz to 2.8 Hz, and the time course of the frequency was not in parallel with that of the size of the maximal M wave. A significant reduction of the tremor frequency by loading and ischaemic nerve block indicates a mechanical reflex mechanism underlying the tremor, and association of synchronous EMG bursts suggests an increase in gain in the stretch reflex loop. The stretch reflex loop plays an important role in generation of oscillation in tremor after neck injury.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0022-3050
NLM Unique ID: 2985191R
Country: England
Entry Date: 20021024
Date Completed: 20030110
Entrez Date: 2002/10/25 4:0
MeSH Date: 2003/1/11 4:0
Citation Subset: IM
http://jnnp.bmjjournals.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=full&pmid=12397157
Publication Status: ppublish
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002 Nov;73(5):585-7
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 12397157 UI: 22284236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed

2
The myelin vacuolation (mv) rat with a null mutation in the attractin gene.
Full Author Name: Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Maeda, Masaya; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Kanehara, Toshiko; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Nakane, Yoshifumi; Yamate, Jyoji; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Kotani, Takao; Serikawa, Tadao.

Kuwamura M, Maeda M, Kuramoto T, Kitada K, Kanehara T, Moriyama M, Nakane Y, Yamate J, Ushijima T, Kotani T, Serikawa T.Lab Invest. 2002 Oct;82(10):1279-86.
[Article in English]

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan. kuwamura@vet.osakafu-u.ac.jp

We recently found a spontaneous tremor mutant in an outbred colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. The tremor behavior was exhibited from around 3 weeks of age and inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The mutant rats had variously sized vacuoles in the neuropil and white matter throughout the central nervous system, especially in the brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Ultrastructurally these vacuoles mainly consisted of splitting of myelin lamella both in the periaxonal and intermyelinic spaces. Linkage analysis using intercross progeny between the myelin vacuolation (mv) rat, named after the pathologic characteristics, and normal control rat strains showed that the mv phenotypes were cosegregated with polymorphic markers adjacent to the Atrn (Attractin, formerly zi [zitter]) locus on rat chromosome 3. A test for allelism suggested that the mv mutation was a new allele in ATRN: In comparison with a marked decrease of Atrn(zi)/Arn(zi), Northern blot analysis revealed no expression of Atrn mRNA in the brain of the mv rats. Finally, a genomic deletion including exon 1 of the mv rats was detected by genomic and sequence analyses. Discovery of the rat null mutation Atrn(mv), different from Atrn(zi), provides a new animal model for studying the functions of the attractin protein.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0023-6837
NLM Unique ID: 0376617
Country: United States
Entry Date: 20021015
Date Completed: 20021119
Entrez Date: 2002/10/16 4:0
MeSH Date: 2002/11/26 4:0
Citation Subset: IM
http://labinvest.uscapjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=full&pmid=12379762
Publication Status: ppublish
Lab Invest 2002 Oct;82(10):1279-86
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 12379762 UI: 22267501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
3
A case of the Roussy-Levy syndrome family.
Full Author Name: Bartosik-Psujek, H; Stelmasiak, Z.

Bartosik-Psujek H, Stelmasiak Z.Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2001;56:393-5.
[Article in English]

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lublin.

Roussy-Levy syndrome, also known as hereditary areflexic dystasia, is a very rare genetic neuromuscular disorder that typically becomes apparent during early childhood. The disorder is characterised by inherited gait ataxia, pes cavus and areflexia which are eventually associated with distal muscle atrophy, postural tremor and minor sensory loss. We report a family whose members in three generations (grandmother, mother, daughters) were showing these clinical signs of Roussy-Levy syndrome. All of these women have displayed gait ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus and sideways curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis).

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0066-2240
NLM Unique ID: 0414101
Country: Poland
Entry Date: 20020429
Date Completed: 20020619
Entrez Date: 2002/4/30 10:0
MeSH Date: 2002/6/20 10:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med] 2001;56:393-5
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 11977346 UI: 21973698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
4
Riluzole therapy in cervical dystonia.
Full Author Name: Müller, Jörg; Wenning, Gregor K; Wissel, Jörg; Baldauf, Angelika; Seppi, Klaus; Brenneis, Christian; Poewe, Werner.

Müller J, Wenning GK, Wissel J, Baldauf A, Seppi K, Brenneis C, Poewe W.Mov Disord. 2002 Jan;17(1):198-200.
[Article in English]

Department of Neurology, Innsbruck University Hospital, Innsbruck, Austria.

We conducted a 6-week open-label pilot study with blinded video rating of riluzole (50 mg twice a day) in six patients with cervical dystonia (CD) refractory to botulinum toxin A and oral pharmacological treatment. The Tsui rating scale served as primary efficacy measure and improved significantly under riluzole (P = 0.002). In three of six patients, the Tsui score improved by more than 30% with a greater 50% reduction in the head tremor/jerk subscore of the Tsui scale. These data suggest that riluzole may be helpful in a subgroup of patients with disabling CD refractory to other therapies.Copyright 2001 Movement Disorder Society.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0885-3185
NLM Unique ID: 8610688
Country: United States
Entry Date: 20020208
Date Completed: 20020524
Entrez Date: 2002/2/9 10:0
MeSH Date: 2002/5/25 10:1
Citation Subset: IM
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.1200
Article Identifier: 10.1002/mds.1200 [pii]
Publication Status: ppublish
Mov Disord 2002 Jan;17(1):198-200
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 11835465 UI: 21824219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
5
Prospective study of selective peripheral denervation for botulinum-toxin resistant patients with cervical dystonia.
Full Author Name: Münchau, A; Palmer, J D; Dressler, D; O'Sullivan, J D; Tsang, K L; Jahanshahi, M; Quinn, N P; Lees, A J; Bhatia, K P.

Münchau A, Palmer JD, Dressler D, O'Sullivan JD, Tsang KL, Jahanshahi M, Quinn NP, Lees AJ, Bhatia KP.Brain. 2001 Apr;124(Pt 4):769-83.
[Article in English]

University Department of Clinical Neurology, Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK.

We have carried out a prospective study of selective peripheral denervation (SPD) in cervical dystonia (CD) patients with primary or secondary botulinum toxin (BT) treatment failure using independent standardized assessment. Patients referred for surgery had a standardized clinical examination, neck muscle EMG, videofluoroscopic swallow and CT of the cervical spine, and were selected for surgery on the basis of the results of these investigations. CD severity, disability and pain were assessed preoperatively and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months postoperatively using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). Severity of head tremor and dysphagia were scored using established rating scales. Additionally, psychosocial function was assessed in a representative subsample of patients (n = 12) using several established questionnaires. Of the 62 patients who were assessed, 22 (35.5%) were not offered surgery, most commonly because of widespread dystonia. Of the remaining 40 patients, 37 have so far had surgery, 31 of whom have been followed up for at least 1 year, and 15 for 18 months after surgery (mean follow-up duration 16.7 months). Using the TWSTRS global outcome score, 68% of patients derived functionally relevant improvement at 12 months after surgery. In the entire operated group, total TWSTRS scores were reduced by 30% at 6 and 12 months after surgery (P < 0.0001). The subscores for severity, disability and pain were reduced by 20, 30 and 40%, respectively, at 6 months (P < or = 0.01) and 20, 40 and 30%, respectively, at 12 months (P < 0.01). Pain increased over time, which appeared to result from muscle reinnervation. TWSTRS scores were not significantly improved in the six patients with primary BT treatment failure. Head tremor did not change. There was a significant improvement of body concept, perceived disfigurement, stigma, and quality of life in the 12 patients whose psychosocial function was assessed. Preoperative disability and restriction of head movement were negatively correlated and the initial response to BT treatment positively correlated with global outcome score. Spread or deterioration of dystonia elsewhere in the body occurred in three patients, with unpleasant sensory symptoms in denervated posterior cervical segments occurring in 14. Ten patients developed mild to moderate dysphagia, and two developed severe dysphagia. We conclude that SPD is an effective treatment for patients with secondary, but probably not for those with primary, BT treatment failure. Reinnervation is not infrequent and can compromise outcome. Postoperative morbidity is low, but there is a risk of dysphagia.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0006-8950
NLM Unique ID: 0372537
Country: England
Entry Date: 20010405
Date Completed: 20010503
Entrez Date: 2001/4/5 10:0
MeSH Date: 2001/5/5 10:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=full&pmid=11287376
Publication Status: ppublish
Brain 2001 Apr;124(Pt 4):769-83
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 11287376 UI: 21184170 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
6
A dissociation between subjective and objective unsteadiness in primary orthostatic tremor.
Full Author Name: Fung, V S; Sauner, D; Day, B L.

Fung VS, Sauner D, Day BL.Brain. 2001 Feb;124(Pt 2):322-30.
[Article in English]

MRC Human Movement and Balance Unit, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.

Patients with primary orthostatic tremor (OT) experience a disabling sense of unsteadiness but rarely fall. In order to study the relationship between the development of subjective unsteadiness, objective unsteadiness and tremor, we recorded standing under four conditions (eyes open or closed, feet together or apart) in six patients with OT. Subjective unsteadiness was indicated by the patients on a four-point scale using a hand-held slider. Objective unsteadiness was assessed by measuring the path lengths of the centre of foot pressure and body motion at the level of the cervical spine. Tremor was measured by surface electromyography from leg and paraspinal muscles. OT patients were objectively more unsteady than controls. Objective unsteadiness also increased disproportionately in patients when standing with eyes closed. These findings suggest that balance control in OT is abnormal and shows increased visual dependence. Subjective unsteadiness increased from mild to severe over seconds to minutes. The increase was faster when standing with eyes closed or feet together. However, although escalating subjective unsteadiness was paralleled by an increase in leg tremor, there were no comparable changes in either paraspinal tremor or objective unsteadiness during the course of a stand. We conclude that there is a dissociation between subjective and objective unsteadiness. This implies that subjective unsteadiness does not arise simply from an awareness of increased body sway. We postulate that the sensation of unsteadiness arises from a tremulous disruption of proprioceptive afferent activity from the legs. This disturbance gives rise to increased co-contracting drive to the leg muscles in order to stiffen the joints and increase stability. Since muscle activity remains tremor-locked, the tremulous proprioceptive feedback is increased, which then further increases the sensation of unsteadiness, and so on in a vicious circle of escalating activity.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0006-8950
NLM Unique ID: 0372537
Country: England
Entry Date: 20010222
Date Completed: 20010322
Entrez Date: 2001/2/7 11:0
MeSH Date: 2001/3/27 10:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=full&pmid=11157559
Publication Status: ppublish
Brain 2001 Feb;124(Pt 2):322-30
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 11157559 UI: 21095506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
7
Upper cervical chiropractic management of a patient with Parkinson's disease: a case report.
Full Author Name: Elster, E L.

Elster EL.J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000 Oct;23(8):573-7.
[Article in English]

www.erinelster.com

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the use of upper cervical chiropractic management in managing a single patient with Parkinson's disease and to describe the clinical picture of the disease. Clinical Features: A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease at age 53 after a twitch developed in his left fifth finger. He later developed rigidity in his left leg, body tremor, slurring of speech, and memory loss among other findings. Intervention and Outcome: This subject was managed with upper cervical chiropractic care for 9 months. Analysis of precision upper cervical radiographs determined upper cervical mis-alignment. Neurophysiology was monitored with paraspinal digital infrared imaging. This patient was placed on a specially designed knee-chest table for adjustment, which was delivered by hand to the first cervical vertebrae, according to radiographic findings. Evaluation of Parkinson's symptoms occurred by doctor's observation, the patient's subjective description of symptoms, and use of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Reevaluations demonstrated a marked improvement in both subjective and objective findings. CONCLUSION: Upper cervical chiropractic care aided by cervical radiographs and thermal imaging had a successful outcome for a patient with Parkinson's disease. Further investigation into upper cervical injury as a contributing factor to Parkinson's disease should be considered.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0161-4754
NLM Unique ID: 7807107
Country: United States
Entry Date: 20001208
Date Completed: 20001208
Entrez Date: 2000/10/26 11:0
MeSH Date: 2001/2/28 10:1
Citation Subset: IM
http://www.us.elsevierhealth.com/cgi-bin/retrieve/pii/S0161475400616093
Article Identifier: S0161475400616093 [pii]
Publication Status: ppublish
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000 Oct;23(8):573-7
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 11050615 UI: 20504358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
8
Pattern of premature degenerative changes of the cervical spine in patients with spasmodic torticollis and the impact on the outcome of selective peripheral denervation.
Full Author Name: Chawda, S J; Münchau, A; Johnson, D; Bhatia, K; Quinn, N P; Stevens, J; Lees, A J; Palmer, J D.

Chawda SJ, Münchau A, Johnson D, Bhatia K, Quinn NP, Stevens J, Lees AJ, Palmer JD.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Apr;68(4):465-71.
[Article in English]

National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK. sanjivchawda@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the pattern of and risk factors for degenerative changes of the cervical spine in patients with spasmodic torticollis and to assess whether these changes affect outcome after selective peripheral denervation. METHODS: Preoperative CT of the upper cervical spine of 34 patients with spasmodic torticollis referred for surgery were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the clinical findings. Degenerative changes were assessed for each joint separately and rated as absent, minimal, moderate, or severe. Patients were clinically assessed before surgery and 3 months postoperatively by an independent examiner using standardised clinical rating scales. For comparison of means a t test was carried out. To determine whether an association exists between the side of degenerative changes and type of spasmodic torticollis a chi(2) test was used. Changes in severity, disability, and pain before and after surgery were calculated using a Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. RESULTS: Fourteen out of 34 patients had moderate or severe degenerative changes. They were predominantly found at the C2/C3 and C3/C4 level and were significantly more likely to occur on the side of the main direction of the spasmodic torticollis (p = 0.015). There was no significant difference in age, sex, duration of torticollis, overall severity, degree of disability, or pain between the group with either no or minimal changes and the group with moderate or severe changes. However, in the second group the duration of inadequate treatment was longer (10.1 v 4.8 years; p=0.009), head mobility was more restricted (p = 0.015), and head tremor was more severe (p = 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, patients with n or minimal degenerative changes showed a significant improvement in pain and severity whereas no difference was found in those with moderate or severe changes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with spasmodic torticollis have an increased risk of developing premature degenerative changes of the upper cervical spine that tend to be on the side towards which the head is turned or tilted and compromise outcome after surgery. Effective early treatment of spasmodic torticollis with botulinum toxin seems to have a protective effect. Patients with spasmodic torticollis and restricted head mobility who do not adequately respond to treatment should undergo imaging of the upper cervical spine. Patients with imaging evidence of moderate or severe degenerative changes seem to respond poorly to selective peripheral denervation.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0022-3050
NLM Unique ID: 2985191R
Country: England
Entry Date: 20000605
Date Completed: 20000605
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 2000/3/23 9:0
MeSH Date: 2000/6/10 9:0
Citation Subset: IM
http://jnnp.bmjjournals.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=full&pmid=10727482
Publication Status: ppublish
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000 Apr;68(4):465-71
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 10727482 UI: 20193719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
9
Post-traumatic cervical dystonia: a distinct entity?
Full Author Name: Samii, A; Pal, P K; Schulzer, M; Mak, E; Tsui, J K.

Samii A, Pal PK, Schulzer M, Mak E, Tsui JK.Can J Neurol Sci. 2000 Feb;27(1):55-9.
[Article in English]

Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, British Columbia, Canada.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The incidence of head/neck trauma preceding cervical dystonia (CD) has been reported to be 5-21%. There are few reports comparing the clinical characteristics of patients with and without a history of injury. Our aim was to compare the clinical characteristics of idiopathic CD (CD-I) to those with onset precipitated by trauma (CD-T). METHODS: We evaluated 114 consecutive patients with CD over a 9-month period. All patients were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire and had a neurological examination. Their clinical charts were also reviewed. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (12%) had mild head/neck injury within a year preceding the onset of CD. Between the two groups (CD-I and CD-T), the gender distribution (F:M of 3:2), family history of movement disorders (32% vs. 29%), the prevalence of gestes antagonistes (65% vs. 64%), and response to botulinum toxin were similar. There were non-specific trends, including an earlier age of onset (mean ages 43.3 vs. 37.6), higher prevalence of neck pain (86% vs. 100%), head tremor (67% vs. 79%), and dystonia in other body parts (23% vs. 36%) in CD-T. CONCLUSIONS: CD-I and CD-T are clinically similar. Trauma may be a triggering factor in CD but this was only supported by non-significant trends in its earlier age of onset.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0317-1671
NLM Unique ID: 0415227
Country: Canada
Entry Date: 20000405
Date Completed: 20000405
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 2000/2/17
MeSH Date: 2000/2/17 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Can J Neurol Sci 2000 Feb;27(1):55-9
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 10676589 UI: 20140998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
10
Unusual presentation of spinal cord compression related to misplaced pedicle screws in thoracic scoliosis.
Full Author Name: Papin, P; Arlet, V; Marchesi, D; Rosenblatt, B; Aebi, M.

Papin P, Arlet V, Marchesi D, Rosenblatt B, Aebi M.Eur Spine J. 1999;8(2):156-9; discussion 160.
[Article in English]

Division of Orthopedic Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Utilization of thoracic pedicle screws is controversial, especially in the treatment of scoliosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl seen 6 months after her initial surgery for scoliosis done elsewhere. She complained of persistent epigastric pain, tremor of the right foot at rest, and abnormal feelings in her legs. Clinical examination revealed mild weakness in the right lower extremity, a loss of thermoalgic discrimination, and a forward imbalance. A CT scan revealed at T8 and T10 that the right pedicle screws were misplaced by 4 mm in the spinal canal. At the time of the revision surgery the somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) returned to normal after screw removal. The clinical symptoms resolved 1 month after the revision. The authors conclude that after pedicle instrumentation at the thoracic level a spinal cord compression should be looked for in case of subtle neurologic findings such as persistent abdominal pain, mild lower extremity weakness, tremor at rest, thermoalgic discrimination loss, or unexplained imbalance.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0940-6719
NLM Unique ID: 9301980
Country: Germany
Entry Date: 19990708
Date Completed: 19990708
Date Revised: 20021101
Entrez Date: 1999/5/20
MeSH Date: 1999/5/20 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00586/bibs/9008002/90080156.htm
Publication Status: ppublish
Eur Spine J 1999;8(2):156-9; discussion 160
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 10333156 UI: 99263951 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
11
Reliability of impairment and physical performance measures for persons with Parkinson's disease.
Full Author Name: Schenkman, M; Cutson, T M; Kuchibhatla, M; Chandler, J; Pieper, C.

Schenkman M, Cutson TM, Kuchibhatla M, Chandler J, Pieper C.Phys Ther. 1997 Jan;77(1):19-27.
[Article in English]

Graduate Program in Physical Therapy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by rigidity, postural instability, bradykinesia, and tremor, as well as other musculoskeletal impairments and functional limitations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the reliability and stability of measures of impairments and physical performance for people in the early and middle stages of PD, Subjects. Thirteen men and 2 women in Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 and 3 of PD participated. Their mean age was 74.5 years (SD = 5.7, range = 64-84). METHODS: Thirteen impairment-level variables and 8 physical performance variables were measured. Measurements were taken on two consecutive days and again a week later on the corresponding two consecutive days. Reliability and stability were assessed using analysis of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS: Test-retest reliability (ICCs) of variables ranged from .69 (hamstring muscle length) to .97 (lumbar flexion). Intraclass correlation coefficients were .85 or greater for 10 of the variables. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: The results suggest that in the early and middle stages of PD, many of the measures of impairment and physical performance are relatively stable.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Grant Support: 

ISSN: 0031-9023
NLM Unique ID: 0022623
Country: United States
Entry Date: 19970206
Date Completed: 19970206
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1997/1/1
MeSH Date: 1997/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Phys Ther 1997 Jan;77(1):19-27
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 8996460 UI: 97149652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
12
Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease.
Full Author Name: Sabaté, M; González, I; Ruperez, F; Rodríguez, M.

Sabaté M, González I, Ruperez F, Rodríguez M.J Neurol Sci. 1996 Jun;138(1-2):114-9.
[Article in English]

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

Pulmonary dysfunction was investigated in fifty-eight Parkinson's patients. Clinical disability was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Pulmonary dysfunction was studied by spirometry with flow-volume loops, body plethysmography with lung volumes computation and maximal inspiratory and expiratory static mouth pressures. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 min (FEV1), FEV1/FVC% and arterial PO2 and PCO2 were significantly below normal values. Residual volume (RV) and total rows were above normal values. Thirty-six had upper airway obstruction as judged by inspiratory flow peaks (PIF) < 3 l/s and FEV1/PEF (expiratory flow peak) > 8.5 l/min and MEF50/MIF50 > 1. Eighteen patients had a central (FEV1 < 80% and FEV1/FVC% < 80% of normal values) or peripheral (maximal expiratory flow between 75% and 25% of FVC and maximal expiratory flow after expiration of 50% below 70% of normal values) obstructive pattern. Sixteen patients had a restrictive dysfunction as judged by a total lung capacity < 85% or FVC < 80% with FEV1/FVC% > 80%. Sixteen patients had air trapping (RV > 120% and RV/TLC > 40%) and seven patients had lung insufflation (TLC > 120%). Rigidity, Rx signs of cervical arthrosis and limitations for passive movement of neck were higher in patients with central or peripheral airway obstruction. Bradykinesia and Rx signs of dorsal arthrosis was higher in patients with upper airway obstruction. Restrictive dysfunction was not related to tremor, rigidity or bradykinesia. The present data support the hypothesis that Parkinson patients present a high risk for pneumologic disturbances. These pulmonary dysfunctions are induced by the simultaneous action of a group of factors including the degree of bradykinesia or rigidity and the musculoskeletal limitations of vertebral column probably induced by chronic anomalous posture.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0022-510X
NLM Unique ID: 0375403
Country: Netherlands
Entry Date: 19961203
Date Completed: 19961203
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1996/6/1
MeSH Date: 1996/6/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
J Neurol Sci 1996 Jun;138(1-2):114-9
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 8791248 UI: 96383384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
13
[Cauda equina cavernous hemangioma associated with hydrocephalus--case report]
Full Author Name: Makino, K; Takamura, H; Gotoh, S; Andoh, M.

Makino K, Takamura H, Gotoh S, Andoh M.No To Shinkei. 1995 Aug;47(8):783-7.
[Article in Japanese]

Department of Neurosurgery, Asahikawa Red Cross Hospital, Japan.

Spinal cavernous hemangioma is rare, and it is extremely rare for cavernous hemangioma to develop in the cauda equina. There has been only one report of hydrocephalus associated with cavernous hemangioma in the cauda equina. We report a case of cavernous hemangioma in the cauda equina diagnosed on the basis of the headaches due to hydrocephalus. A 67-year-old man was being treated for Parkinson's disease because of tremor of both upper extremities for several years. In December 1991 he complained of occasional headaches. On February 15, 1992 the headaches became severe and frequent, with nausea and vomiting, and his gait became unsteady. Four days later he came to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed fine finger tremor and truncal ataxia. Computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed ventricular enlargement, but there were no mass lesions obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathway. Lumbar puncture at the L3-L4 level yielded bloody cerebrospinal fluid, and the pressure had increased to 410 mmH2O. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated an intradural tumor at the level of vertebral body L2. Spinal angiography showed no evidence of abnormal vascularity in the mass at the L2 level. On March 10, 1992, laminectomy at three levels, L1 to L3 was performed, and a well-defined blueberry-like intra-cauda equina tumor 1 cm. in diameter, was removed. One spinal nerve root passed through the tumor. The pathological diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. After removal of the tumor, the patient's headaches improved, and a follow-up computerized tomography scan six months later showed normal ventricle size.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0006-8969
NLM Unique ID: 0413550
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19951103
Date Completed: 19951103
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1995/8/1
MeSH Date: 1995/8/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
No To Shinkei 1995 Aug;47(8):783-7
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 7546925 UI: 96029047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
14
[Clinical difference between "proximal" and "distal" type of cervical spondylotic amyotrophy]
Full Author Name: Tsuboi, Y; Tokumaru, Y; Hirayama, K.

Tsuboi Y, Tokumaru Y, Hirayama K.Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1995 Feb;35(2):147-52.
[Article in Japanese]

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Chiba University.

We studied 31 patients with cervical spondylotic amyotrophy. Weakness and atrophy without prominent sensory changes were started from the proximal muscles in 16 patients (proximal type), and from the distal muscles in 15 patients (distal type). In both types, the age at onset of neurological symptom ranged from thirties to sixties, and men were more frequently affected than women. Distal type patients often presented cold paresis and/or postural finger tremor, which occasionally was the initial symptom. Two patients of proximal type had muscular atrophy extended to the distal end. None of distal type patients had extension of atrophy to the proximal muscles during a long course of their illness. Most patients of proximal type had neurogenic changes on electromyography extended to the distal muscles. Neuroradiologically, proximal type patients had a cord atrophy at C4/5 intervertebral level, and distal type had cord atrophy at C5/6,6/7. We assume that the responsible lesion for the cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is in anterior horn at C5-T1 cord level for the proximal type, and at C7-T1 for the distal type. Abnormal venous circulation within the cord may cause the selective involvement of the gray matter.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0009-918X
NLM Unique ID: 0417466
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19950718
Date Completed: 19950718
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1995/2/1
MeSH Date: 1995/2/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1995 Feb;35(2):147-52
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 7781230 UI: 95300391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
15
[A 75-year-old man with parkinsonism and delirium]
Full Author Name: Tanabe, K; Yokochi, F; Hirai, S; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Mizuno, Y.

Tanabe K, Yokochi F, Hirai S, Mori H, Suda K, Kondo T, Mizuno Y.No To Shinkei. 1994 Jan;46(1):85-92.
[Article in Japanese]

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

We report a 75-year-old man with a ten-year history of parkinsonism, who developed acute delirium. He was well until 65 years of age, when there was an onset of tremor in his left hand. He had been treated with levodopa and trihexyphenidyl with marked improvement. He was doing well until July of 1991 at his age of 75-year-old, when he noted backache; he was found to have a compression fracture of the third lumbar spine. He had to use a wheel-chair most of the time since then. In December 1991, he started to have visual hallucinations and difficulty in swallowing. On December 25 of that year, he developed fever and delirium, and was admitted to our hospital on December 30. On admission, general physical examination was unremarkable except for low grade fever (37.3 degrees C). Neurologic examination revealed an alert but chronically ill patient. Apparently he had visual hallucinations. He was disoriented to all spheres; he could respond only to simple questions. Apparently he was demented. Cranial nerves were intact except for mumbling speech disturbance and masked face. He was unable to stand or walk. He had flexion contracture in his both knee joints. He had paratonic rigidity in all his limbs and marked bradykinesia. Once in a while, myoclonic jerks were seen in both upper and lower extremities. Deep reflexes were diminished bilaterally, and the plantar reflex was not elicited on either side. On laboratory examination, BUN was increased to 72 mg/dl, creatinine to 3.0 mg/dl, and WBC 16,000/microliter. Cranial CT scans were unremarkable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0006-8969
NLM Unique ID: 0413550
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19940426
Date Completed: 19940426
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1994/1/1
MeSH Date: 1994/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
No To Shinkei 1994 Jan;46(1):85-92
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 8192765 UI: 94183652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
16
'Essential tremor' and CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene.
Full Author Name: Kaneko, K; Igarashi, S; Miyatake, T; Tsuji, S.

Kaneko K, Igarashi S, Miyatake T, Tsuji S.Neurology. 1993 Aug;43(8):1618-9.
[Article in English]No Abstract Available.

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0028-3878
NLM Unique ID: 0401060
Country: United States
Entry Date: 19930915
Date Completed: 19930915
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1993/8/1
MeSH Date: 1993/8/1 0:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Neurology 1993 Aug;43(8):1618-9
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 8351025 UI: 93354588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
17
Characteristics of physiological tremor in five fingers and evaluations of fatigue of fingers in typing.
Full Author Name: Sakamoto, K; Nishida, K; Zhou, L; Itakura, N; Seki, K; Hamba, S.

Sakamoto K, Nishida K, Zhou L, Itakura N, Seki K, Hamba S.Ann Physiol Anthropol. 1992 Jan;11(1):61-8.
[Article in English]

Department of Communications and Systems, University of Electro Communications, Tokyo, Japan.

Physiological tremor, which is the invisible mechanical vibration of body part, was measured for five fingers. It was obtained that the power spectrum always has two peaks at 10 and 25Hz for each of the five fingers. The peaks were considered to be generated in the following two loop systems: The component of the lower frequency originated from the central nervous system as a long loop, and that of the higher frequency originated from the muscle-spine loop system as a short loop. The total power, which was the sum of power spectra ranging from 1.5 to 50Hz, was defined as an evaluation index, and it showed characteristic results for the five fingers. The muscular load produced by two hours of typing work was responsible mainly for the increase of total power and for the change of peak frequencies. The mechanism for the change of the power spectrum due to muscular load was well explained by the two-loop theory. It was found that the fatigue of the fingers due to muscular load could be evaluated by the total power.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0287-8429
NLM Unique ID: 8506625
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19920528
Date Completed: 19920528
Date Revised: 20011114
Entrez Date: 1992/1/1
MeSH Date: 1992/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM, S
Publication Status: ppublish
Ann Physiol Anthropol 1992 Jan;11(1):61-8
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 1567521 UI: 92232061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
18
[An autopsy case of pallido-nigro-luysian atrophy associated with OPLL]
Full Author Name: Inagaki, T; Hashizume, Y; Mitake, S; Nokura, K; Niimi, T; Yamamoto, T; Shirai, T; Yamamoto, M.

Inagaki T, Hashizume Y, Mitake S, Nokura K, Niimi T, Yamamoto T, Shirai T, Yamamoto M.Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 1989 Jul;26(4):361-6.
[Article in Japanese]

Clinical and neuropathological studies of a case of pallido-nigro-luysian atrophy with thalamic degeneration and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is reported. The patient was a 72-year-old man, suffering from gait disturbance caused by OPLL for about 3 years. The clinical features were characterized by gradual development of disorientation in place, time and person, memory disturbance, vertical gaze palsy and rigidity of extremities. Dysarthria, dysphagia, bradykinesia, masked face and neck dystonia appeared at the advanced stage of his illness. There was no tremor or other involuntary movements. A clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism was suspected. The main neuropathological findings were neuronal loss and gliosis in globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus. In addition, neuronal loss of the anterior horn of the cervical spinal cord due to compression by OPLL (C4-C7) was recognized. The neuropathological findings of the present case were consistent with systemic degenerative disorder of the nervous system affecting the pallido-nigro-luysian tract. This rare disorder should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism in old people.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Number of References: 16
ISSN: 0300-9173
NLM Unique ID: 7507332
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19900215
Date Completed: 19900215
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1989/7/1
MeSH Date: 1989/7/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 1989 Jul;26(4):361-6
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 2514308 UI: 90112936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
19
[A case of juvenile-type distal and segmental muscular atrophy of upper extremities (Hirayama disease) with the isolated cervical fusion at the C3-C4 levels]
Full Author Name: Horikawa, H; Nakamuro, T; Konagaya, M; Mano, Y; Takayanagi, T.

Horikawa H, Nakamuro T, Konagaya M, Mano Y, Takayanagi T.Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1989 May;29(5):639-42.
[Article in Japanese]

The case, 29-year-old male, had suffered from muscular weakness and atrophy of the bilateral forearms and hands with tremor of the bilateral fingers for about 13 years. A neurological examination showed normal muscle-stretch reflexes and no sensory disturbances. A cervical spinogram revealed a fusion at the C3-C4 levels and mild spondylotic changes. We clinically diagnosed him as juvenile-type distal and segmental muscular atrophy of upper extremities (Hirayama disease) with the isolated congenital cervical fusion. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlargement of the anterior epidural space from the C4-C5 levels to the Th 1-Th 2 levels. This abnormal epidural space showed relatively high signal intensity partially with low signal intensity on the T2 weighted spin-echo image and decreased in signal on the T1 weighted spin-echo image. And the dural sac was shifted backward and narrowed. And the soft discs was slightly protruded at the level of C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7. These findings suggest the over swelling and the delayed blood flow of the internal vertebral venous plexus. In this case, the degeneration of the cervical spine and soft disc derived from the congenital cervical fusion seems to have caused the internal vertebral venous plexus congestion and then have damaged the anterior horn cells.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0009-918X
NLM Unique ID: 0417466
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19891108
Date Completed: 19891108
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1989/5/1
MeSH Date: 1989/5/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1989 May;29(5):639-42
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 2791416 UI: 90004035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
20
[A case presenting manifestations of bulbospinal muscular atrophy with senile onset, rapid progression and marked asymmetry]
Full Author Name: Imai, T; Kaneshige, Y; Sasaki, K; Chiba, S; Matsumoto, H.

Imai T, Kaneshige Y, Sasaki K, Chiba S, Matsumoto H.Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1989 Mar;29(3):379-81.
[Article in Japanese]

A 64-year-old man was admitted to our department because of muscle cramp, atrophy and weakness of the limbs together with difficulty in walking, which had gradually progressed from age 60. About 1 year prior to admission, he had noticed hand tremor and gynecomastia. On admission, neurological examination revealed diffuse muscle atrophy and weakness of the extremities, which were more obvious on the right side with preponderance in the right leg. Bilateral postural hand tremor was also more prominent on the right hand. Fasciculations were observed both in the extremities and tongue. The remaining cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were intact. Sensation was normal except for slightly decreased vibratory sense in the distal part of the legs. Deep tendon reflexes including jaw jerk were increased with the exception of hyporeflexia of the right leg. Babinski sign was negative bilaterally. Blood examination disclosed slight elevation of CK and fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dl. Glucose tolerance test showed a diabetic pattern. CSF examination showed total protein of 74 mg/dl and IgG of 12 mg/dl. On a series of endocrinological studies, there was no significant elevation of androgen and estrogen both in serum and urine except for slight elevation of serum E1 level. Serum LH and FSH, however, were markedly high, which responded far beyond the normal range following to 0.1 mg injection of LH-RH. These results suggested that gynecomastia might be caused by dysfunction of the hypothalamus-hypophysis system. Brain CT and spine MRI showed no abnormality. Muscle biopsy obtained from the right quadriceps femoris revealed neurogenic abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0009-918X
NLM Unique ID: 0417466
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19890831
Date Completed: 19890831
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1989/3/1
MeSH Date: 1989/3/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1989 Mar;29(3):379-81
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 2752668 UI: 89324541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
21
Familial bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy associated with testicular atrophy and sensory neuropathy (Kennedy-Alter-Sung syndrome). Autopsy case report of two brothers.
Full Author Name: Nagashima, T; Seko, K; Hirose, K; Mannen, T; Yoshimura, S; Arima, R; Nagashima, K; Morimatsu, Y.

Nagashima T, Seko K, Hirose K, Mannen T, Yoshimura S, Arima R, Nagashima K, Morimatsu Y.J Neurol Sci. 1988 Nov;87(2-3):141-52.
[Article in English]

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Japan.

Autopsy cases of two brothers with bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy associated with gynecomastia, testicular atrophy and sensory neuropathy are reported. The disease started with finger tremor, proximal muscle weakness and facial muscle twitching at the second and fourth decades, accompanied by bulbar signs and glove-stocking type sensory disturbance. Systemic neurogenic patterns and diminished sensory nerve action potential amplitudes were recorded by electrophysiological studies. A marked loss of myelinated fibers was noticed upon sural nerve biopsy. Gonadal hormone values were normal, except for elevated urinary estrogen. Postmortem examinations revealed a remarkable degeneration of the facial and hypoglossal nuclei, and the spinal cord motoneurons. The skeletal muscles and the tongue showed neurogenic muscular atrophy with fatty replacement. Testicular atrophy was prominent showing hyalinized seminiferous tubuli with nodular and diffuse Leydig cell hyperplasia, containing estrogen immunoreactive substance. These clinical and histological features seemed to be highly compatible with those of Kennedy-Alter-Sung type bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy. The involvement of sensory peripheral nerves, however, was a distinct feature of this family.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0022-510X
NLM Unique ID: 0375403
Country: Netherlands
Entry Date: 19890213
Date Completed: 19890213
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1988/11/1
MeSH Date: 1988/11/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
J Neurol Sci 1988 Nov;87(2-3):141-52
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 3210030 UI: 89094398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
22
Kennedy disease in an Italian kindred.
Full Author Name: Guidetti, D; Motti, L; Marcello, N; Vescovini, E; Marbini, A; Dotti, C; Lucci, B; Solimè, F.

Guidetti D, Motti L, Marcello N, Vescovini E, Marbini A, Dotti C, Lucci B, Solimè F.Eur Neurol. 1986;25(3):188-96.
[Article in English]

An X-linked adult-onset neurogenic muscular atrophy, chiefly proximal, with late involvement of the distal musculature and medulla oblongata was present in 4 members of a single kindred. Associated in all patients were gynecomastia, impotence and essential tremor. Frederickson type IV hyperlipemia was present in 1 patient. Hormonal stimulation tests in 2 patients elicited a borderline low testicular response in the younger of the 2 and a pathological response in the older patient. On the evidence of these and previously reported cases, Kennedy disease would appear to be characterized by an X-linked proximal neurogenic amyotrophy of adult onset and by a testicular endocrine deficit.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0014-3022
NLM Unique ID: 0150760
Country: Switzerland
Entry Date: 19860609
Date Completed: 19860609
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1986/1/1
MeSH Date: 1986/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Eur Neurol 1986;25(3):188-96
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 3699069 UI: 86192575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
23
Effects of arrested cerebellar development on locomotion in the rat. Cinematographic and electromyographic analysis.
Full Author Name: Gruner, J A; Altman, J; Spivack, N.

Gruner JA, Altman J, Spivack N.Exp Brain Res. 1980;40(4):361-73.
[Article in English]

The activity of the rat hindlimb during treadmill stepping was studied in normal adult rats and in rats in which cerebellar development was interfered with by early-postnatal focal X-irradiation. Based on cinematographic and electromyographic data from over 100 step cycles in 15 normal rats, correlations were made between joint angles and muscle activity to obtain a detailed picture of the locomotor pattern of the rat hindlimb. It was possible to relate most of the features of limb movement to activity in one or more of six primary flexors and extensors of the hindlimb. Compared with available data in the cat or dog, the joint angle curves were similar in shape except that the knee joint angle was usually greater at foot contact than at lift-off, while in cats and dogs the reverse is usually the case. This difference is due to a more crouched stepping posture in the rat in which the leg is not extended as far backward as in the cat or dog. It was also noticed that there was more side-to-side bowing of the spine in the rat during stepping. Finally, in rats there was no correlate to the stance phase burst seen in the semitendinosus in cats. In rats with cerebellar X-irradiation there was little effect on the stepping cycle if the animal's equilibrium was maintained externally, either by a supporting harness or by immersion in water (swimming). However, when stepping without external support, animals were unable to adequately compensate for perturbations in equilibrium, resulting in an ataxic gait. This problem was compound by the presence of high-frequency (18 Hz) tremor which, by producing hyper- or hypotonia during critical periods of stepping such as foot placement or during corrective reflex movements, was a major disturbing force to the animal's equilibrium.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0014-4819
NLM Unique ID: 0043312
Country: Germany, West
Entry Date: 19810219
Date Completed: 19810219
Date Revised: 20001218
Entrez Date: 1980/1/1
MeSH Date: 1980/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Exp Brain Res 1980;40(4):361-73
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 7439280 UI: 81066918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
24
Use of the ECG in the diagnosis of childhood spinal muscular atrophy.
Full Author Name: Russman, B S; Fredericks, E J.

Russman BS, Fredericks EJ.Arch Neurol. 1979 May;36(5):317-8.
[Article in English]

The appearance of tremors in patients with childhood, chronic spinal muscular atrophy has been known for years. We were struck by the presence of a "muscle tremor" artifact in the ECGs of all our patients with this diagnosis. This observation has not been noted previously. The consistency of this finding in patients with this disease is the basis for this report.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0003-9942
NLM Unique ID: 0372436
Country: United States
Entry Date: 19790716
Date Completed: 19790716
Date Revised: 20021101
Entrez Date: 1979/5/1
MeSH Date: 1979/5/1 0:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Arch Neurol 1979 May;36(5):317-8
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 444102 UI: 79186704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
25
Subarachnoid block and enlargement of the spinal canal in hypertrophic neuritis.
Full Author Name: De León, G A; Hodges, F J 3rd.

De León GA, Hodges FJ 3rd.J Neurol Sci. 1976 Jun;28(2):139-46.
[Article in English]

A case of Dejerine-Sottas hypertrophic neuritis is reported. The patient, a 45-year-old male, suffered from chronic hypertrophic polyneuropathy, abnormal pupils, fasciculations, tremor, back pain, impotence, sphincter disorders, cramps, and lightning pains in the lower extremities. Besides extensive subarachnoid block, there was X-ray evidence of enlargement of the bony spinal canal with scalloping of the lumbar vertebrae. Surgical exploration showed these abnormalities to be due to extreme hypertrophy of the cauda equina. Histologic findings in peripheral nerve and lumbar root biopsies were typical of hypertrophic neuropathy of the onion bulb type. Vertebral changes secondary to hypertrophied nerve roots appear not to have been described before in hypertrophic neuritis; however, knowledge of their possible occurrence may be of practical importance in the management of similar future cases. A simple way of visualizing enlarged peripheral nerves is briefly described.

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0022-510X
NLM Unique ID: 0375403
Country: Netherlands
Entry Date: 19760803
Date Completed: 19760803
Entrez Date: 1976/6/1
MeSH Date: 1976/6/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
J Neurol Sci 1976 Jun;28(2):139-46
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 1271079 UI: 76192954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
26
[Motor reactions of chronic spinal rats after administration of oxotremorine]
Full Author Name: Staib, A H; Oelszner, W; Scherber, A.

Staib AH, Oelszner W, Scherber A.Acta Biol Med Ger. 1974;32(2-3):287-91.
[Article in German]

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0001-5318
NLM Unique ID: 0370276
Country: Germany, East
Vernacular Title: Motorische Reaktionen chronisch spinalisierter Ratten nach Oxotremorinapplikation
Entry Date: 19741226
Date Completed: 19741226
Entrez Date: 1974/1/1
MeSH Date: 1974/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Acta Biol Med Ger 1974;32(2-3):287-91
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 4423029 UI: 75030455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
27
The geography of neurology.
Full Author Name: Spillane, J D.

Spillane JD.Br Med J. 1972 May 27;2(812):506-12.
[Article in English]

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Number of References: 113
ISSN: 0007-1447
NLM Unique ID: 0372673
Country: England
Entry Date: 19720807
Date Completed: 19720807
Entrez Date: 1972/5/27
MeSH Date: 1972/5/27 0:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Br Med J 1972 May 27;2(812):506-12
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 4555546 UI: 72201111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
28
[Systemic degenerative alteration of the nervous system in rats by 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide]
Full Author Name: Hayashi, Y; Toyoshima, K; Hasegawa, T.

Hayashi Y, Toyoshima K, Hasegawa T.Shinkei Kenkyu No Shimpo. 1972 Feb;16(1):190-2.
[Article in Japanese]

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0001-8724
NLM Unique ID: 0067457
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19720413
Date Completed: 19720413
Entrez Date: 1972/2/1
MeSH Date: 1972/2/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Shinkei Kenkyu No Shimpo 1972 Feb;16(1):190-2
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 5061961 UI: 72102264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
29
Prolonged elevation of serum protein-bound iodine following myelography with Myodil.
Full Author Name: White, A G.

White AG.Br J Radiol. 1972 Jan;45(529):21-3.
[Article in English]

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0007-1285
NLM Unique ID: 0373125
Country: England
Entry Date: 19720328
Date Completed: 19720328
Entrez Date: 1972/1/1
MeSH Date: 1972/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: AIM, IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Br J Radiol 1972 Jan;45(529):21-3
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 5008328 UI: 72088609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
30
[Raynaud's phenomenon due to use of chain saws and chipping machines]
Full Author Name: Takagi, S.

Takagi S.Jpn Circ J. 1968 Jan;32(1):99-110.
[Article in Japanese]

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

Substances: 

ISSN: 0047-1828
NLM Unique ID: 7806868
Country: Japan
Entry Date: 19680808
Date Completed: 19680808
Entrez Date: 1968/1/1
MeSH Date: 1968/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Jpn Circ J 1968 Jan;32(1):99-110
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 5694837 UI: 68286231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed
31
[Cold tremor in unanesthetized, chronically spinalized rabbits as compared with cold shivering in intact animals]
Full Author Name: Kosaka, M; Simon, E.

Kosaka M, Simon E.Pflugers Arch. 1968;302(4):333-56.
[Article in German]

Publication Types: 

MeSH Terms: 

ISSN: 0031-6768
NLM Unique ID: 0154720
Country: Germany, West
Vernacular Title: Kältetremor wacher, chronisch spinalisierter Kaninchen im Vergleich zum Kältezittern intakter Tiere.
Entry Date: 19681220
Date Completed: 19681220
Entrez Date: 1968/1/1
MeSH Date: 1968/1/1 0:1
Citation Subset: IM
Publication Status: ppublish
Pflugers Arch 1968;302(4):333-56
MEDLINE Citation: NLM
PMID: 5246534 UI: 69028112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed

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