Der Betrug mit "chlorella pyrenoidosa"


21.5.2001

14.5.2001
Nicht alles, was in der Natur wächst, kann der Mensch essen. Gifte in Pflanzen und Tieren und Pilzen gehören zu den natürlichen Abwehrstoffen, mit denen sich diese Lebewesen gegen ihre Freßfeinde und Nahrungskonkurrenten durchsetzen.

Algen gehören zu den verbreitetsten Lebewesen auf der Erde. Einige sind für den Menschen sehr giftig, entweder sie selbst direkt oder indirekt durch die von ihnen produzierten Stoffwechselprodukte.

Eine weitere Quelle für Gifte können aber auch aufgenommene Stoffe aus der Umwelt sein (vor allem Schwermetalle) und andere Lebewesen, die in, an oder mit den Algen leben.

Algen lassen sich sehr leicht züchten bzw ernten. Mit den entsprechenden Werbelügen angepriesen, werden sie vor allem an Kranke in anderen Ländern verkauft.

Zu den bekanntesten Algen im Gesundheitsmarkt gehören die "chlorella pyrenoidosa" und die "Blau-grün-Algen aus dem Lake Klamath" ("blue-green algae (BGA)") in den USA.

Obwohl die chlorella pyrenoidosa angeblich die am schnellsten wachsende Pflanze der Erde ist, wird sie verkauft zum Preis von 500 DM pro Kilogramm, das heißt zum 500-fachen des Preises von Getreidemehl.

Helfen sollen die Algen gegen Schwermetallvergiftungen, ADS (Hyperaktivität, ADHD), und alles mögliche und unmögliche andere. Den Beweis für die Wirksamkeit der Algen bleiben die Verkäufer schuldig. Sie lügen das Blaue vom Himmel herunter.

Tatsache ist: Es gibt in der anerkannten Wissenschaft keine einzige Untersuchung, die beweist, daß der Verzehr der Alge "chlorella pyrenoidosa" bei Schwermetallvergiftung durch Amalgam diese Metalle aus dem menschlichen Körper entfernt.

Der durch den Verkauf von chlorella pyrenoidosa allein in Deutschland angerichtete finanzielle Schaden beträgt geschätzt mehr als 1 Milliarde DM pro Jahr !

Alleine der größte Produzent von chlorella pyrenoidosa hatte vor 2 Jahren einen jährlichen Umsatz von mehr als 400 Millionen US-Dollar weltweit.

In der amerikanischen "PubMed" sind über "chlorella pyrenoidosa" nur 31 Fundstellen zu den Stichwörtern "chlorella", "pyrenoidosa" und "metal". Wird statt mit "metal" mit "Hg" gesucht, erhält man einen einzigen Treffer (der sich bereits unter den 31 befindet). Dieser Treffer erfolgt aber nur wegen des Beleuchtungskörpers des Versuchs: Er arbeitet mit einer Quecksilber-Hochdrucklampe: "artificial lighting provided with Hg-metal halide lights."

"mercury" liefert keinen einzigen Treffer, "amalgam" ebensowenig.

Ich liste hier die 31 abstracts bzw Hinweise. Bitte beachten Sie den Zeitraum: Er reicht über 30 Jahre zurück!

Die Untersuchungen über Zusammenhänge zwischen Algen und Metallen haben einen einfachen Grund: Vor der industriellen Nutzung von Algen zur Wasserreinigung oder zur biologischen Metallgewinnung muß man für die in der Klärbrühe "arbeitenden" Algen die zulässigen Konzentrationen der einzelnen Metalle bestimmen.

Aribert Deckers


Journal Citations:

Item 1 displayed (out of 31 found).

Asymmetric reduction of ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate by Chlorella.

Kuramoto T,  Iwamoto K,  Izumi M,  Kirihata M,  Yoshizako F.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999 Mar;63(3):598-601.

Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan.

Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick reduced ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate to the corresponding alcohols with the diastereomer (anti/syn) ratio of 53/47. The enantiomer excesses of anti-(2S, 3S)- and syn-(2S, 3R)-hydroxy esters were 89 and > 99ee% respectively. C. vulgaris and C. regularis afforded predominantly the syn-isomer, contrary to C. pyrenoidosa. The differences in the activity of reducing ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate were observed among three strains of Chlorella. Addition of 2% metal salts slightly increased the chemical yield of the hydroxy ester.

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PMID: 10227152
From PubMed

Item 2 displayed (out of 31 found).

Feasibility studies for a photosynthetic artificial lung. Optimization of parameters affecting photosynthesis.

Basu S,  Salley SO,  Whittlesey GC,  Klein MD.

ASAIO J. 1994 Jul-Sep;40(3):M743-6.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

As an alternative to conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) hardware, preliminary studies were conducted toward the development of a life support system based on biologic processes for the direct generation of O2 and removal of CO2 by the action of a photosynthetic organism. A high temperature strain of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which functions optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4, was cultured in a 3 I fermenter with artificial lighting provided with Hg-metal halide lights. The pH, total CO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of the system were monitored at regular intervals using flow-through microelectrodes. The degree of importance of light intensity, substrate concentration, and cell density in the photosynthetic ability of Chlorella in batch culture were assessed over a 2 hour period. At high light intensities, the O2 production, CO2 removal, and pH changes were significantly greater than those at low irradiance levels. Over the range of HCO3- concentrations used in these experiments, the initial HCO3- levels did not appear to have a significant effect on the rates of O2 production/CO2 removal. The total amount of O2 produced/CO2 removed and pH changes were found to be greater with higher cell densities. Under more optimal culture conditions, it may be feasible to eventually interface this photobioreactor with blood across a semipermeable membrane and catalytically convert blood CO2 to O2 directly, needing only an adequate light source.

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PMID: 8555614
From PubMed

Item 3 displayed (out of 31 found).

Removal of Cu and Ni by free and immobilized microalgae.

Wong MH,  Pak DC.

Biomed Environ Sci. 1992 Jun;5(2):99-108.

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon.

The present investigation evaluated the effectiveness of Chlorella cells in concentrating Cu and Ni in their cells and thereby removing the two metals from solution. The removal efficiency of the two metals by free and immobilized algal cells were further studied. (1) Four types of Chlorella cells, namely Chlorella pyrenoidosa (26) (from Carolina Biological Supplies Company), Chlorella HKBC-1 and-2 (isolated from a polluted stream receiving wastewater from several electroplating factories) and Chlorella HKBC-3 (from a clean water pond) were subjected to different concentrations of Cu and Ni accordingly. It was revealed that Chlorella HKBC-1 was the most tolerant species to Cu and Ni as reflected by their highest values of 48 h and 96 h "Highest no effect concentrations" (The highest concentration of the tested substance that does not inhibit the growth rate of the alga: Cu 2 and Ni 10 mg/l at 48 h, Cu 2 and Ni 5 at 96 h). This was followed by C. pyrenoidosa (26) and then C. HKBC-2 while C. HKBC-3 had the lowest tolerance to the two metals (Cu 0.5 and Ni 2 at 48 h; Cu 0.5 and Ni 1 mg/l at 96 h). (2) It was further revealed that C. HKBC-1 had higher concentration factors and removal efficiencies of Ni (734-963 mg/l, 16.3-18.7%) and C. HKBC-2 had higher concentration factors and removal efficiencies of Cu (2316-2839 mg/l, 53.7-66%) when exposed to lower concentrations of Cu (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l) and Ni (5, 10 and 13 mg/l). (3) By treating the free and immobilized algal cells (algal cells entrapped in alginate beads) with different concentrations of Cu and Ni, it was observed that free cells had higher concentration factors and removal efficiencies when compared with immobilized cells (free cells: Cu 1577-3056 mg/l, 24.2-71.4%; Ni 355-849 mg/l, 4.8-18.7%; immobilized cells: Cu 453-935 mg/l, 13.9-53.2%; Ni 244-486 mg/l, 3.2-11.9%).

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PMID: 1642794
From PubMed

Item 4 displayed (out of 31 found).

Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent.

Chan SS,  Chow H,  Wong MH.

Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Sep;4(3):250-61.

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon.

The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

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PMID: 1764214
From PubMed

Item 5 displayed (out of 31 found).

Decontamination of landfill leachate by soils with different textures.

Wong MH,  Li MM,  Leung CK,  Lan CY.

Biomed Environ Sci. 1990 Dec;3(4):429-42.

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon.

Soils with different textures (sandy, loamy, and clay soils) were used as filters to attenuate leachate from the Gin Drinkers' Bay landfill. They were used to pack columns of different depths: 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 m. Eight millimeters of leachate was drained into the soil columns each day for 56 days. The percolated leachates were collected weekly and their properties analyzed. It was revealed that the properties became rather stable at Day 28 and therefore only the data from Day 28 are presented. The effluents from the loamy and clay columns with depths of 0.6 and 1.0 m contained significantly lower (P less than 0.05) ammonia contents and had lower chemical oxygen demand than those from sandy soil columns. Moreover, the depth of the columns of loam and clay did not show a significant difference (P greater than 0.05). Sandy soil was the least effective in attenuating the leachate. The efficiency of all the soil columns decrease as the soil depth decreased. It was also noted that growing of tree seedings (Acacia confusa) could further improve the efficiency of the loamy soil, especially for the removal of Na. The phytotoxicity of the raw and percolated leachate was evaluated using seed germination of two plant species (Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne) and the growth of an uncellular green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). In general, the raw leachate was toxic and inhibited seed germination and root growth of the two plant species and the growth rate of the unicellular green alga. The toxicity was due to the high levels of ammonia-nitrogen. COD, iron, manganese, and sodium ions. Percolated leachate, especially from loamy and clay soil columns, exhibited a decrease in phytotoxicity. Clay or loamy soil columns of 0.6-m soil depth seemed to be sufficient to remove the phytotoxic substances in landfill leachate.

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PMID: 2096848
From PubMed

Item 6 displayed (out of 31 found).

Toxicity of nickel and nickel electroplating water to Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Wong PK,  Wong CK.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Nov;45(5):752-9.

Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T.

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PMID: 2265275
From PubMed

Item 7 displayed (out of 31 found).

Measurement of manganese amelioration of cadmium toxicity in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using turbidostat culture.

Bennett WN.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Jan-Feb;19(1):118-23.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 53201.

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity and amelioration of Cd toxicity by Mn were measured in Chlorella pyrenoidosa, using turbidostat culture. The responses were measured in terms of the maximum specific growth rate, mu max, of the populations. In turbidostat culture mu max is a dependent variable that can be measured continuously. Cd (as CdCl2.2.5 H2O) was added to control populations at a concentration of 1.8 microM Cd. Toxicity was expressed after a 5 generation lag and resulted in a mu max steady state 62% lower than the initial control after 2 generations. With continued Cd exposure, Mn (as MnCl2.6H2O) was then added stepwise to a concentration of 10.4 microM Mn which caused a rapid, immediate increase in mu max followed by linear increase until a steady-state plateau was reached at a mu max 90% of control. The ameliorative response spanned 20 culture generations. After addition of Mn (10.4 microM), cellular Cd concentration did not change and cellular Mn concentration increased. Increase in mean cell size accompanied Cd exposure and was significantly decreased when supplemented with 10.4 microM Mn. Possible mechanisms of the amelioration are discussed.

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PMID: 2331145
From PubMed

Item 8 displayed (out of 31 found).

Evaluation of the metal uptake of several algae strains in a multicomponent matrix utilizing inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.

Mahan CA,  Majidi V,  Holcombe JA.

Anal Chem. 1989 Mar 15;61(6):624-7.

Three freshwater heat-killed, lyophilized blue-green algae strains have been characterized as to their ability to accumulate heavy metals with a focus on the utilization of these algae as an analytical preconcentration technique. This study examines the metal uptake in several multicomponent mixtures by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Six milligrams of a pure strain of algae was added to 20-mL aliquots of buffered (pH 5.5-6.5) multielement solutions containing 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Sr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, As, Cd, Mo, Pb, and Se. All three algae strains exhibit relatively high adsorption affinities for Fe, Pb, and Cu, with uptake between 70 and 98% at the 4 ppm concentration level. Biosorption occurs for essentially every element with the relative affinities decreasing in the order Pb greater than Fe greater than Cu greater than Cd greater than Zn greater than Mn greater than Mo greater than Sr greater than Ni greater than V greater than Se greater than As greater than Co for Chlorella pyrenoidosa at the 4 mg/L concentration level. Although some minor differences were seen, the other algae strains (Stichococcus bacillaris and Chlamydomonas reinharti) displayed similar adsorption behavior over the concentration range studied, indicating similar cell wall binding sites. Langmuirian isotherms exhibited a minimum of two slopes over the concentration range of 0.1-4.0 mg/L, indicating the probable existence of at least two adsorption mechanisms.

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PMID: 2729595
From PubMed

Item 9 displayed (out of 31 found).

Toxic effects of cobalt and zinc to Chlorella pyrenoidosa (26) in soft and hard water.

Wong MH.

Microbios. 1980;28(111):19-25.

Different concentrations (0.83, 3.33, 10 ppm) of cobalt (cobalt sulphate) and zinc (zinc chloride) were added to bristol media prepared using soft water (addition of 20 mg/l calcium carbonate) and hard water (addition of 400 mg/l calcium carbonate). A known amount of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (26) was inoculated into various media, and the number of Chlorella cells was counted every other day for a period of 8 days. Cobalt and zinc were more toxic in media prepared using soft water than hard water as revealed by the growth rate of C. pyrenoidosa. These results agree with studies elsewhere on other aquatic organisms.

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PMID: 7453572
From PubMed

Item 10 displayed (out of 31 found).

Cadmium transport by Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Hart BA,  Bertram PE,  Scaife BD.

Environ Res. 1979 Apr;18(2):327-35.

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PMID: 510253
From PubMed

Item 11 displayed (out of 31 found).

Determination of the absorption of Cr+6 and Cr+3 in an algal culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using 51Cr.

Schroll H.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1978 Dec;20(6):721-4.

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PMID: 749971
From PubMed

Item 12 displayed (out of 31 found).

The role of vanadium in green plants. IV. Influence on the formation of delta-aminolevulinic acid in Chlorella.

Meisch HU,  Bauer J.

Arch Microbiol. 1978 Apr 27;117(1):49-52.

In a series of experiments, it is demonstrated that the trace element vanadium (4.10(-7) g-at/1 as NH4VO3) has a considerable positive influence on the synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid(delta-ALA) in the autotrophically growing green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the effect being visible by an enhanced output of the amino acid into the culture medium in presence of levulinic acid (LA). The level of intracellularly accumulated delta-ALA, however, is not changed in presence of the metal. The V-effect on exogenous found delta-ALA is suppressed, when LA is added to the nutrient medium at low pH (pH5), although V-uptake into the algal cells is not disturbed by LA. As demonstrated in culture media with various nitrogen sources (urea, partially hydrolized urea, ammonium salts), the development of the pH during the cultivation time is important for the presentation of the V-effect on delta-ALA. It is suggested that vanadium acts as a catalyst in the conversion of 4,5-dioxovaleric acid to delta-ALA by transamination.

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PMID: 28098
From PubMed

Item 13 displayed (out of 31 found).

The role of vanadium in green plants. III. Influence on cell division of Chlorella.

Meisch HU,  Benzschawel H.

Arch Microbiol. 1978 Jan 23;116(1):91-5.

Vanadium, although essential for growth and chlorophyll formation in unicellular green algae, reveals toxic influences on cell division of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, these disturbances arising in the same range of V-concentrations as the known positive effects of the trace metal. In permanent light, as documented by cell volume statistics, vanadium (4-10(-7) g-at/1 as NH4VO3) causes a significant shift of the distribution maxima to higher values of the algal cell volume, the shift having its optimum at 10(-5) g-at V/1. It is documented in pH-constant liquid culture that this effect is not due to a change of pH in the nutrient medium. Under synchronous conditions of algal cultivation (16:8h), vanadium causes a total arrest of cell division after 3 periods; this stop lasts for the next 3 cycles. Afterwards, asynchronous divisions newly occur and lead to generally larger autospores. Staining of algal cell nuclei revealed an inhibitory V-effect on nuclear division, yielding giant nuclei with multiple sets of chromosomes, and thereby limiting cell division. Under these conditions, Chlorella pyrenoidosa is not synchronizable in presence of vanadium.

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PMID: 23738
From PubMed

Item 14 displayed (out of 31 found).

The role of vanadium in gree plants. II. Vanadium in green algae--two sites of action.

Meisch HU,  Benzschawel H,  Bielig HJ.

Arch Microbiol. 1977 Jul 26;114(1):67-70.

Cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, derived from vanadium free agar slants, respond with great sensitivity to microamounts of vanadium, added as NH4VO3 to autotrophic liquid cultures. Between 0.01 and 1 microgram V per litre nutrient medium (2-10(-10)-2-10(-8) g-at/1), the algae respond with a continuous incrase in dry weight. At higher V-concentrations, further enhancement in biomass is accompanied by a additional increase in chlorophyll content. Maximum V-effect on both parameters was found to be at 500 microgram V/1 (10(-5) G-AT/1). Dry weight as well as chlorophyll content of Chlorella are decreased by concentrations above 25 mg V/1; 100 mg V/1 (2-10(-3) g-at/1) stop growth and cause death of the cells. The toxic threshold for the V-content in the algae was determined to be at 150-200 microgram V/g (3-4-10(-6) g-at/g) dry weight. Two different pH-optima for a positive vanadium action on dry weight and chlorophyll biosynthesis were established, the first at pH 7, the other in the range pH 7.5--8. Two sites of vanadium action in green algae are discussed.

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PMID: 20864
From PubMed

Item 15 displayed (out of 31 found).

[Regulation of glutamine metabolism in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Regulation of glutamine synthetase activity by adenylic system components].

Akimova NI,  Evstigneeva ZG,  Kretovich VL.

Biokhimiia. 1977 May;42(5):947-51.

[Article in Russian]

A decrease of glutamine synthetase (E. C. 6.3.1.2.) activity was observed under the assimilation of ammonium nitrogen in Chlorella. At the same time a decrease of ATP content in Chlorella cells took place. The ATP content was 7-fold decreased, while ADP and AMP contents were 4-fold and 3-fold increased respectively, after 15 min. of Chlorella incubation on "ammonium" medium. Further incubation for 45 min, resulted in gradual increase of ATP content and in decrease of ADP and AMP contents. The value of energy charge in ammonium assimilating Chlorella cells sharply decreased for first 15 min. of incubation and then it normalized gradually. The experiments with glutamine synthetase preparation, isolated from ammonium assimilating cells, have shown that ADP and AMP are strong inhibitors of the enzyme in the presence of Mg2+, and only ADP produces the inhibitory effect in the presence of Mn2+. No enzyme reactivation was observed after the transfer of ammonium assimilating cells into nitrogen-free medium or nitrate medium, the enzyme activity increasing at the expense of enzyme protein synthesis denovo.

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PMID: 19102
From PubMed

Item 16 displayed (out of 31 found).

[Effect of univalent cations on the glutamate dehydrogenase of chlorella].

Shatilov VR,  Kasparova MA,  Kretovich VL.

Biokhimiia. 1976 Sep;41(9):1636-40.

[Article in Russian]

Effect of univalent cations (Li+, K+, Na+ and Cs+) on the activity and some kinetic properties of the constitutive and the inducible glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Pringsheim 82T has been studied. All the cations used activate the inducible GDH and produced no such effect on the constitutive GDH. From the analysis of the kinetic behaviour in the presence of K+ the conclusion was made that K+ promotes and stabilyzes a catalitically advantagenous conformation of the inducible GDH. This phenomenon appears to have a physiological meaning, because of a higher K+ concentration in Chlorella cells (about 0.1 M) and its important role in metabolism.

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PMID: 974178
From PubMed

Item 17 displayed (out of 31 found).

[Glutamine metabolism regulation in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Regulation of Chlorella glutamine synthetase activity by amino acids].

Akimova NI,  Evstigneeva ZG,  Kretovich VL.

Biokhimiia. 1976 Aug;41(8):1471-7.

[Article in Russian]

Effect of glutamine and its metabolites (amino acids) on Chlorella glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C.6.3.1.2) in the presence of Mg or Mn was studied. Purified GS preparation was used, isolated from Chlorella grown in the presence of NH as a sole nitrogen source. Glutamate, aspartate, alanine and glycine inhibit GS activity in the presence of both Mg and Mn. Tryptophane and valine (up to 15 mM) activate GS in the presence of Mn. Tryptophane inhibits GS in the system with Mg. Sinergistic inhibition was observed under the combined effect of amino acids on GS in the presence of Mn and aspartate or alanine. The change of GS activity observed is supposed to be due to the inhibitory effect of glutamine and amino acids studied, since the glutamine content is increased (in 2.5 times for 5 min) and that of alanine and dicarbonic amino acids (for the following 15 min) under NH assimilation in Chlorella cells.

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PMID: 15647
From PubMed

Item 18 displayed (out of 31 found).

Enhancement studies on algae and isolated chloroplasts. Part II. Enhancement of oxygen evolution in intact chloroplasts.

Williams WP,  Salamon Z,  Muallem A,  Barber J,  Mills J.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 May 14;430(2):300-11.

Intact isolated chloroplasts were shown to exhibit a characteristic three-phase pattern of development of oxygen evolution activity. The first phase, Phase I, appeared to be an equilibration phase in which the isolated chloroplasts adapted to the conditions on the electrode surface. It was characterised by a rapidly increasing rate of oxygen evolution accompanied by decreasing enhancement signals. The second phase, Phase II, was an intermediate phase in which the rate of oxygen evolution was maximal and no enhancement was observed. In the last phase, Phase III, the rate of oxygen fell again, normal enhancement was still missing, but the samples appeared to undergo slow adaptive changes closely related to the State I-State II changes previously reported for whole cell systems. The concentrations of Mg2+ within the chloroplast were shown to play an important role in the control of the development of both the oxygen evolution and enhancement signals. It was shown how these signals could be explained in terms of a model that was consistent with that developed in Part I of this investigation to account for the variability of enhancement of the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

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PMID: 1276186
From PubMed

Item 19 displayed (out of 31 found).

[Regulation of glutamine metabolism in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Mechanisms of regulating the activity of glutamine synthetase during ammonia assimilation].

Akimova NI,  Evstigneeva ZG,  Kretovich VL.

Biokhimiia. 1976;41(7):1306-12.

[Article in Russian]

Glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C.6.3.1.2) activity in Chlorella cells decreased when NH4+ was added to nitrogen-free growth medium. This GS inactivation had such a rate, that it could not be due to the repression of enzyme synthesis: the GS activity decreased by 20% within 5 minutes of NH4+ assimilation. Glutamine content in cell increased in 2.5 times for this period. In vitro experiments have shown that glutamine is a strong inhibitor of GS from Chlorella grown in the presence of NO3-, and in a less degree--an inhibitor of GS from cells grown in ammonium-containing medium. The data obtained are negative with respect to possible mechanisms of GS activity regulation via adenylation and ATP-dependent destruction of glutamine synthetase.

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PMID: 11843
From PubMed

Item 20 displayed (out of 31 found).

Effect of vanadium on growth, chlorophyll formation and iron metabolism in unicellular green algae.

Meisch HU,  Bielig HJ.

Arch Microbiol. 1975 Sep 30;105(1):77-82.

In the presence of vanadium, growth of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa was increased five to sixfold as determined by dry weight, when cultured under autotrophic conditions for 7 days. The stimulation by vanadium decreased with increasing stability towards hydrolysis of the iron(III)-compounds added. Pentavalent vanadium (20 mug V/1 as NH4VO3) was able to overcome completely a limited iron-deficiency in the algae following growth in presence of 1.8 - 10(-5) m ferric chloride. Vanadium did not alter the iron uptake into the algal cells. 90% of offered 48V was taken up by Scenedesmus obliquus during 5 days of growth, and 21% thereof were found in the chloroplast fraction. In presence of vanadium, the chlorophyll formation was stimulated in Scenedesmus obliquus. This stimulation by vanadium was found to be light-dependent but occurred to a certain extent in the dark also. The main porphyrin of the yellow mutant 211-11h/20 of Chlorella vulgaris was identified as protoporphyrin-IX. The formation of this compound was stimulated by vanadium within 10 days up to 83%. The role of vanadium in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls is discussed.

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PMID: 1190955
From PubMed

Item 21 displayed (out of 31 found).

Metabolism of sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride in Chlorella pyrenoidosa by sulfoquinovosyl monoglyceride: fatty acyl CoA acyltransferase and sulfoquinovosyl glyceride: fatty acyl ester hydrolase pathways.

Wolfersberger MG,  Pieringer RA.

J Lipid Res. 1974 Jan;15(1):1-10.

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PMID: 4359538
From PubMed

Item 22 displayed (out of 31 found).

The synthesis of 7-(adenosine-5'-pyrophosphoryl)-D-sedoheptulose by an enzyme system from the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

White RC,  Barber GA.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1972 Mar 8;258(3):753-62.

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PMID: 5017699
From PubMed

Item 23 displayed (out of 31 found).

Intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations and net cation movements in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Shieh YJ,  Barber J.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971 Jun 1;233(3):594-603.

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PMID: 4255903
From PubMed

Item 24 displayed (out of 31 found).

Composition and synthesis of DNA in synchronously growing cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Wanka F,  Joosten HF,  de Grip WJ.

Arch Mikrobiol. 1970;75(1):25-36.

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PMID: 4322193
From PubMed

Item 25 displayed (out of 31 found).

Composition and synthesis of DNA in synchronously growing cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Wanka F,  Joosten HF,  de Grip WJ.

Arch Mikrobiol. 1970;75(1):25-36.

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PMID: 4322101
From PubMed

Item 26 displayed (out of 31 found).

Light-induced net uptake of sodium and chloride by Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Barber J.

Arch Biochem Biophys. 1969 Mar;130(1):389-92.

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PMID: 5778654
From PubMed

Item 27 displayed (out of 31 found).

The influence of copper on the photosynthesis and growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Nielsen LK.

Dan Tidsskr Farm. 1969;43(10):249-54.

MeSH Terms:

Substances:

PMID: 5371700
From PubMed

Item 28 displayed (out of 31 found).

The efflux of potassium from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Barber J.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968 Dec 10;163(4):531-8.

MeSH Terms:

Substances:

PMID: 5727394
From PubMed

Item 29 displayed (out of 31 found).

The influx of potassium into Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Barber J.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968 Sep 17;163(2):141-9.

MeSH Terms:

Substances:

PMID: 5686270
From PubMed

Item 30 displayed (out of 31 found).

Sodium efflux from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Barber J.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968 Jun 11;150(4):730-3.

MeSH Terms:

Substances:

PMID: 5660378
From PubMed

Item 31 displayed (out of 31 found).

Measurement of the membrane potential and evidence for active transport of ions in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Barber J.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968 Jun 11;150(4):618-25.

MeSH Terms:

Substances:

PMID: 5660369
From PubMed

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